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Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates

Maisonnasse et al., Nature, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2558-4 (date from preprint)
May 2020  
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Monkey study which reports no effect of HCQ or HCQ+AZ. However, there are several signs of effectiveness despite the very small sample sizes and 100% recovery of all treated and control monkeys.
58% reduction in lung lesions: the final day lung lesion data shows 63% of control monkeys have lesions, while 26% of treated monkeys do, p=0.095 (the final day data is missing for 7 monkeys, these are predicted based on the day 5 results and the trend of comparable monkeys).
97% increase in viral load recovery after one week: 3 of 8 control monkeys (38%) have recovered with <= 4 log10 copies/mL viral load, compared to 17 of 23 treated monkeys (74%), p=0.095. 3 of 8 (38%) control monkeys also have a higher peak viral load than 100% of the 23 treated monkeys post-treatment. The group with the lowest peak viral load is the PrEP group.
All animals were infected with the same initial viral load, whereas real-world infections vary in the initial viral load, and lower initial viral loads allow greater time to mount an immune response.
Severity of disease is not analyzed as compared to humans. The steep viral drops observed could also be related to immune system response.
Maisonnasse et al., 6 May 2020, peer-reviewed, 24 authors.
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Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates
Pauline Maisonnasse, Jérémie Guedj, Vanessa Contreras, Sylvie Behillil, Caroline Solas, Romain Marlin, Thibaut Naninck, Andres Pizzorno, Julien Lemaitre, Antonio Gonçalves, Nidhal Kahlaoui, Olivier Terrier, Raphael Ho Tsong Fang, Vincent Enouf, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Angela Brisebarre, Franck Touret, Catherine Chapon, Bruno Hoen, Bruno Lina, Manuel Rosa Calatrava, Sylvie Van Der Werf, Xavier De Lamballerie, Roger Le Grand
Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2558-4
This is a PDF file of a peer-reviewed paper that has been accepted for publication. Although unedited, the content has been subjected to preliminary formatting. Nature is providing this early version of the typeset paper as a service to our authors and readers. The text and figures will undergo copyediting and a proof review before the paper is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.
Reporting summary Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this paper. Acknowledgements Delache B, Burban E, Demilly J, Dhooge N, Langlois S, Le Calvez P, Potier M, Relouzat F, Robert JM and Dodan C contributed to animal studies. Fert B and Mayet C contributed to in vivo imaging studies. Pascal Q performed the necropsies. Morin J did the cytokines measurements and reagents preparation. Barthelemy K, Basso M, Doudka N, Giocanti M, contributed to HCQ concentration measurements. Lacarelle B and Guilhaumou R contributed to internal drug concentration data. Bertrand J contributed to pharmacokinetics analysis. Desjardins D contributed to the AZTH pharmacokinetic study. Aubenque C, Barendji M, Bossevot L, Dimant N, Dinh J, Gallouet AS, Leonec M, Mangeot I and Storck K contributed to sample processing. Albert M., Barbet M. and Donati F contributed to the production, titration and sequencing of the virus stocks used in vivo and to processing of samples for RT-PCR. Gallouet AS, Keyser, S, Marcos-Lopez E, Targat B and Vaslin B helped to experimental studies in the context of COVID-19 induced constraints. Ducancel F and Gorin Y contributed to logistics and safety management. We are very grateful for the help of Dr Sultan E from Sanofi for providing guidance in HCQ dose selection and discussion on PK/PD results and the review of the article. We thank Sanofi for providing the hydroxychloroquine batch used in these experiments...
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