Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Inhalable Chitosan-Based Hydrogel as a Mucosal Adjuvant for Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Hamster Model

Shu-Han Lin et al., Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2023.08.001
Aug 2023  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Hamster study showing intranasal administration of HCQ + chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) resulted in higher HCQ concentrations in the lungs compared to HCQ alone, suggesting COS enhanced lung absorption of HCQ. COS + HCQ led to earlier and greater immune responses, including higher levels of cytokines like IL-6, IL-10 and antibodies IgA and IgG. This was associated with faster viral clearance and less lung injury. High inhaled doses of HCQ were not associated with cardiac or liver toxicity. In summary, inhaled COS appeared to be a beneficial adjuvant to inhaled HCQ in treating COVID-19 in hamsters by increasing lung delivery, amplifying immune responses, accelerating viral eradication, and attenuating lung damage without added toxicities.
Shu-Han Lin et al., 15 Aug 2023, Taiwan, peer-reviewed, 9 authors. Contact:,
This PaperHCQAll
Inhalable Chitosan-Based Hydrogel as a Mucosal Adjuvant for Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Hamster Model
Donna Shu-Han Lin, Shian Chiuan Tzeng, Tai-Lung Cha, Chin-Mao Hung, Wen-Chin Lin, Chuen-Mi Yang, Hsuan-Ying Lu, Jia-Yu Chang, PhD Shu-Wei No Huang
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2023.08.001
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Bednash, Kagan, Englert, Farkas, Tyurina et al., Syrian hamsters as a model of lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Pathologic, physiologic, and detailed molecular profiling, Transl Res
Borghardt, Kloft, Sharma, Inhaled therapy in respiratory disease: the complex interplay of pulmonary kinetic processes, Can Respir J
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Lofgren et al., A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Browning, Pharmacology of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine retinopathy
Caramaschi, Kapp, Miller, Eisenberg, Johnson et al., Histopathological findings and clinicopathologic correlation in COVID-19: a systematic review, Mod Pathol
Ducharme, Farinotti, Clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of chloroquine. Focus on recent advancements, Clin Pharmacokinet
Ghendon, Markushin, Krivtsov, Akopova, Chitosan as an adjuvant for parenterally administered inactivated influenza vaccines, Arch Virol
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Antonelli, Cabrini et al., Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy, JAMA
Gumilang, Siswanto, Anggraeni, Trisnawati, Budiono et al., QT interval and repolarization dispersion changes during the administration of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine with/without azithromycin in early COVID 19 pandemic: A prospective observational study from two academic hospitals in Indonesia, J Arrhythm
Jean, Lee, Hsueh, Treatment options for COVID-19: The reality and challenges, J Microbiol Immunol Infect
Lagana, Kudose, Iuga, Lee, Fazlollahi et al., Hepatic pathology in patients dying of COVID-19: a series of 40 cases including clinical, histologic, and virologic data, Mod Pathol
Lai, Hsu, Lee, Ko, Hsueh et al., An inevitable sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection, J Microbiol Immunol Infect
Lee, Silva, Lee, Hartl, Elias, Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles, Curr Opin Immunol
Li, Chiou, Lin, Kuo, Lin et al., Immunological map in COVID-19, J Microbiol Immunol Infect
Lin, Lee, Cheng, Tseng, Wu et al., Multicenter evaluation of four immunoassays for the performance of early diagnosis of COVID-19 and assessment of antibody responses of patients with pneumonia in Taiwan, J Microbiol Immunol Infect
Liu, Cao, Xu, Wang, Zhang et al., Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Cummings, Hardin et al., Outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine Usage in United States Veterans Hospitalized with COVID-19. Med (N Y)
Mcchesney, Banks, Fabian, Tissue distribution of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and desethylchloroquine in the rat, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
Mitchell, Berlinski, Canisius, Cipolla, Dolovich et al., Urgent Appeal from International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) During COVID-19: Clinical Decision Makers and Governmental Agencies Should Consider the Inhaled Route of Administration: A Statement from the ISAM Regulatory and Standardization Issues Networking Group, J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
Osuchowski, Winkler, Skirecki, Cajander, Shankar-Hari et al., The COVID-19 puzzle: deciphering pathophysiology and phenotypes of a new disease entity, Lancet Respir Med
Pitre, Van Alstine, Chick, Leung, Mikhail et al., Antiviral drug treatment for nonsevere COVID-19: a systematic review and network meta-analysis, CMAJ
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Crawford, Mcginn et al., Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area, JAMA
Rosenberg, Dufort, Udo, Wilberschied, Kumar et al., Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In
Safarzadeh, Sadeghi, Azizi, Rastegari-Pouyani, Pouriran et al., Chitin and chitosan as tools to combat COVID-19: A triple approach, Int J Biol Macromol
Sainz-Gil, Kolly, Velasco-González, Rello, Fernandez-Araque et al., Hydroxychloroquine safety in Covid-19 vs non-Covid-19 patients: analysis of differences and potential interactions, Expert Opin Drug Saf
Shaveisi-Zadeh, Nikkho, Erfan, Amiri, Azizi et al., Changes in liver enzymes and association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective case-control study, J Int Med Res
Shim, Yoo, The application of mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles in nasal drug delivery. Mar Drugs
Singh, Ryan, Kredo, Chaplin, Fletcher, Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Sodeifian, Seyedalhosseini, Kian, Eftekhari, Najari et al., Drug-Induced Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review, Front Med (Lausanne)
Sonzogni, Previtali, Seghezzi, Alessio, Gianatti et al., Liver histopathology in severe COVID 19 respiratory failure is suggestive of vascular alterations, Liver Int
Türker, Türker, Ahbab, Hoca, Urvasızoğlu et al., Evaluation of the charlson comorbidity index and laboratory parameters as independent early mortality predictors in covid 19 patients, Int J Gen Med
Wang, Zhang, Du, Du, Zhao, Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial, Lancet
Yang, Wei, Hsu, Ho, Lai et al., Characterization of Virus Replication, Pathogenesis, and Cytokine Responses in Syrian Hamsters Inoculated with SARS-CoV-2, J Inflamm Res
Yendrapalli, Ali, Green, Edwards, Effects of cardiac toxicity of combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in COVID-19 patients, J Infect Public Health
Yuan, Pavel, Wang, Kwachukwu, Mediouni et al., Hydroxychloroquine blocks SARS-CoV-2 entry into the endocytic pathway in mammalian cell culture, Commun Biol
Zhao, Rapkiewicz, Maghsoodi-Deerwester, Gupta, Cao et al., Pathological findings in the postmortem liver of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Hum Pathol
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jmii.2023.08.001', 'ISSN': ['1684-1182'], 'URL': '', 'alternative-id': ['S1684118223001524'], 'assertion': [ {'label': 'This article is maintained by', 'name': 'publisher', 'value': 'Elsevier'}, { 'label': 'Article Title', 'name': 'articletitle', 'value': 'Inhalable Chitosan-Based Hydrogel as a Mucosal Adjuvant for Hydroxychloroquine ' 'in the Treatment for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Hamster Model'}, { 'label': 'Journal Title', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'value': 'Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version', 'name': 'articlelink', 'value': ''}, {'label': 'Content Type', 'name': 'content_type', 'value': 'article'}, { 'label': 'Copyright', 'name': 'copyright', 'value': '© 2023 Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.'}], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Shu-Han Lin', 'given': 'Donna', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Tzeng', 'given': 'Shian Chiuan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cha', 'given': 'Tai-Lung', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hung', 'given': 'Chin-Mao', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lin', 'given': 'Wen-Chin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yang', 'given': 'Chuen-Mi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lu', 'given': 'Hsuan-Ying', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Chang', 'given': 'Jia-Yu', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Huang', 'given': 'Shu-Wei', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection', 'container-title-short': 'Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection', 'content-domain': { 'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': [ '', '', '', '', '', '', '']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-08-15T01:06:13Z', 'timestamp': 1692061573000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-08-15T01:06:21Z', 'timestamp': 1692061581000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-08-15T01:41:26Z', 'timestamp': 1692063686435}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-08-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1690848000000}}, { 'URL': '', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 6, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 7]], 'date-time': '2023-08-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1691366400000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference-count': 0, 'references-count': 0, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [ 'Infectious Diseases', 'Microbiology (medical)', 'General Immunology and Microbiology', 'General Medicine', 'Immunology and Allergy'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Inhalable Chitosan-Based Hydrogel as a Mucosal Adjuvant for Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment ' 'for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Hamster Model', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': ''}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop