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New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine

Savarino et al., Lancet Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70361-9
Feb 2006  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Update to 2003 paper. Hypothesis of CQ inhibiting SARS replication has been confirmed in two in-vitro studies. CQ affected an early stage of SARS replication.
34 preclinical studies support the efficacy of HCQ for COVID-19:
Savarino et al., 1 Feb 2006, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperHCQAll
Abstract: Reflection and Reaction empirically, because of its activity against most of the causative filamentous fungi and its time-tested experience.7,8,10 Newer agents may be useful when microbiological diagnosis is established (eg, voriconazole for Aspergillus spp, posaconazole for zygomycetes), although further studies are required. Lastly, Van Damme and Hartman refer to noma (chancrum oris), a devastating necrotising destructive process of the face typically affecting young malnourished children in Africa. This condition has been presented in a recent excellent review by Baratti-Mayer and colleagues.14 We thank Van Damme and Hartman for their interest in our paper, and their comments which allowed us to elaborate upon the most important topic of rapidly progressive SSTIs. 10 Donald C Vinh, John M Embil 11 DCV and JME are at the Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Correspondence to: Dr John Embil, Infection Prevention and Control Unit, Health Sciences Centre, MS 673-820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3A 1R9, Canada. Tel +1 204 787 4654; fax +1 204 787 4699; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 Vinh DC, Embil JM. Rapidly progressive soft tissue infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2005; 5: 501–13. Djupesland PG. Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck—report of three cases and review of the literature. Acta Otolaryngol 2000; 543 (suppl): 186–89. Kimura AC, Pien FD. Head and neck cellulitis in hospitalized adults. Am J Otolaryngol 1993; 14: 343–49. Broadhurst LE, Erickson RL, Kelley PW. Decreases in invasive Haemophilus influenzae diseases in US Army children, 1984 through 1991. JAMA 1993; 269: 227–31. Givner LB. Periorbital versus orbital cellulitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21: 1157–58. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Derry HG, et al. Infectious Diseases of America guideline: diagnosing and treating diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 885–910. Johnson MA, Lyle G, Hanly M, et al. Aspergillus: a rare primary organism in soft-tissue infections. Am Surg 1998; 64: 122–26. Gettleman LK, Shetty AK, Prober CG. Posttraumatic invasive Aspergillus fumigatus wound infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999; 18: 745–47. Sawyer RG, Schenk WG 3rd, Adams RB, et al. Aspergillus flavus wound infection following repair of a ruptured duodenum in a nonimmunocompromised host. Scand J Infect Dis 1992; 24: 805–09. Heinz T, Perfect J, Schell W, et al. Soft-tissue fungal infections: surgical management of 12 immunocompromised patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 1996; 97: 1391–99. Safdar A. Progressive cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis due to Paecilomyces lilacinus: rapid response to treatment with caspofungin and itraconazole. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 1415–17. Losee JE, Selber J, Vega S, et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis: guide to surgical management. Ann Plast Surg 2002; 49: 385–90. Andresen D, Donaldson A, Choo L, et al. Multifocal cutaneous mucormycosis complicating polymicrobial wound infections in a tsunami survivor from Sri Lanka. Lancet 2005; 365: 876–78. Baratti-Mayer D, Pittet B, Montandon D, et al. Noma: an “infectious” disease of unknown aetiology. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3: 419–31. New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine In a paper published 2 years ago in this journal, some of us described the potentially therapeutic benefits of the quinoline antimalarial chloroquine in viral diseases such as HIV-1/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).1..
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