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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro

Liu et al., Cell Discovery 6, 16 (2020), doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0
Mar 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
In Vitro study showing that HCQ is effective in vitro and less toxic than CQ. In addition to direct antiviral activity, HCQ is a safe and successful anti-inflammatory agent that has been used extensively in autoimmune diseases and can significantly decrease the production of cytokines and, in particular, pro-inflammatory factors. Therefore, in COVID-19 patients, HCQ may also contribute to attenuating the inflammatory response. Careful design of clinical trials is important to achieve efficient and safe control of the infection.
33 preclinical studies support the efficacy of HCQ for COVID-19:
Liu et al., 18 Mar 2020, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperHCQAll
Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro
Jia Liu, Ruiyuan Cao, Mingyue Xu, Xi Wang, Huanyu Zhang, Hengrui Hu, Yufeng Li, Zhihong Hu, Wu Zhong, Manli Wang
Cell Discovery, doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0
Dear Editor, The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV) poses a serious threat to global public health and local economies. As of March 3, 2020, over 80,000 cases have been confirmed in China, including 2946 deaths as well as over 10,566 confirmed cases in 72 other countries. Such huge numbers of infected and dead people call for an urgent demand of effective, available, and affordable drugs to control and diminish the epidemic. We have recently reported that two drugs, remdesivir (GS-5734) and chloroquine (CQ) phosphate, efficiently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro 1 . Remdesivir is a nucleoside analog prodrug developed by Gilead Sciences (USA). A recent case report showed that treatment with remdesivir improved the clinical condition of the first patient infected by SARS-CoV-2 in the United States 2 , and a phase III clinical trial of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 was launched in Wuhan on February 4, 2020. However, as an experimental drug, remdesivir is not expected to be largely available for treating a very large number of patients in a timely manner. Therefore, of the two potential drugs, CQ appears to be the drug of choice for large-scale use due to its availability, proven safety record, and a relatively low cost. In light of the preliminary clinical data, CQ has been added to the list of
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Supplementary Information accompanies the paper at (https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0).
References
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Huang, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
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Mcchesney, Animal toxicity and pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, Am. J. Med
Mingo, Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus display late cell entry kinetics: evidence that transport to NPC1+ endolysosomes is a rate-defining step, J. Virol
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Weniger, Review of side effects and toxicity of chloroquine, Bull. World Health
Zheng, Zhang, Rosania, Effect of phospholipidosis on the cellular pharmacokinetics of chloroquine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther
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