Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine against Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection in Newborn Mice

Keyaerts et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, August 2009, 53(8), doi:0.1128/AAC.01509-08
Aug 2009  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
CQ inhibits HCoV-OC43 replication in HRT-18 cells. A lethal HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn C57BL/6 mice can be treated with CQ acquired transplacentally or via maternal milk. The highest survival rate (98.6%) was found when mother mice were treated daily with a concentration of 15 mg of CQ per kg of body weight. Survival rates declined in a dose-dependent manner, with 88% survival when treated with 5 mg/kg CQ and 13% survival when treated with 1 mg/kg CQ. CQ can be highly effective against HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn mice and may be considered as a future drug against HCoVs.
Keyaerts et al., 1 Aug 2009, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine against Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection in Newborn Mice
Els Keyaerts, Sandra Li, Leen Vijgen, Evelien Rysman, Jannick Verbeeck, Marc Van Ranst, Piet Maes
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1128/aac.01509-08
Until recently, human coronaviruses (HCoVs), such as HCoV strain OC43 (HCoV-OC43), were mainly known to cause 15 to 30% of mild upper respiratory tract infections. In recent years, the identification of new HCoVs, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, revealed that HCoVs can be highly pathogenic and can cause more severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. To date, no specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat HCoV infections are available. We demonstrate that chloroquine, a widely used drug with well-known antimalarial effects, inhibits HCoV-OC43 replication in HRT-18 cells, with a 50% effective concentration (؎ standard deviation) of 0.306 ؎ 0.0091 M and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (؎ standard deviation) of 419 ؎ 192.5 M, resulting in a selectivity index of 1,369. Further, we investigated whether chloroquine could prevent HCoV-OC43-induced death in newborn mice. Our results show that a lethal HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn C57BL/6 mice can be treated with chloroquine acquired transplacentally or via maternal milk. The highest survival rate (98.6%) of the pups was found when mother mice were treated daily with a concentration of 15 mg of chloroquine per kg of body weight. Survival rates declined in a dose-dependent manner, with 88% survival when treated with 5 mg/kg chloroquine and 13% survival when treated with 1 mg/kg chloroquine. Our results show that chloroquine can be highly effective against HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn mice and may be considered as a future drug against HCoVs.
References
Akintonwa, Gbajumo, Mabadeje, Placental and milk transfer of chloroquine in humans, Ther. Drug Monit
Akintonwa, Meyer, Yau, Placental transfer of chloroquine in pregnant rabbits, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol
Arbour, Day, Newcombe, Talbot, Neuroinvasion by human respiratory coronaviruses, J. Virol
Arden, Nissen, Sloots, Mackay, New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia, J. Med. Virol
Augustijns, Jongsma, Verbeke, Transplacental distribution of chloroquine in sheep, Dev. Pharmacol. Ther
Barnard, Day, Bailey, Heiner, Montgomery et al., Evaluation of immunomodulators, interferons and known in vitro SARS-coV inhibitors for inhibition of SARS-coV replication in BALB/c mice, Antivir. Chem. Chemother
Blau, Holmes, Human coronavirus HCoV-229E enters susceptible cells via the endocytic pathway
Boelaert, Yaro, Augustijns, Meda, Schneider et al., Chloroquine accumulates in breast-milk cells: potential impact in the prophylaxis of postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, AIDS
Chiu, Chan, Chu, Kwan, Guan et al., Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease in Hong Kong, China, Clin. Infect. Dis
Choi, Lee, Kim, Eun, Kim et al., The association of newly identified respiratory viruses with lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children, 2000-2005, Clin. Infect. Dis
Essien, Afamefuna, Chloroquine and its metabolites in human cord blood, neonatal blood, and urine after maternal medication, Clin. Chem
Fouchier, Hartwig, Bestebroer, Niemeyer, Jong et al., A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci
Gorbalenya, Snijder, Spaan, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus phylogeny: toward consensus, J. Virol
Jacomy, Talbot, Susceptibility of murine CNS to OC43 infection, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol
Jacomy, Talbot, Vacuolating encephalitis in mice infected by human coronavirus OC43, Virology
Keyaerts, Vijgen, Maes, Neyts, Van Ranst, In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun
Kono, Tatsumi, Imai, Saito, Kuriyama et al., Inhibition of human coronavirus 229E infection in human epithelial lung cells (L132) by chloroquine: involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK, Antivir. Res
Kouroumalis, Koskinas, Treatment of chronic active hepatitis B (CAH B) with chloroquine: a preliminary report, Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore
Ksiazek, Erdman, Goldsmith, Zaki, Peret et al., A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome, N. Engl. J. Med
Lai, Holmes, Coronaviridae: the viruses and their replication
Larson, Reed, Tyrrell, Isolation of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses from 38 colds in adults, J. Med. Virol
Lau, Woo, Yip, Tse, Tsoi et al., Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong, J. Clin. Microbiol
Pardridge, Yang, Diagne, Chloroquine inhibits HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Immunol. Lett
Rubin, Bernstein, Zvaifler, Studies on the pharmacology of chloroquine. Recommendations for the treatment of chloroquine retinopathy, Arch. Ophthalmol
Savarino, Boelaert, Cassone, Majori, Cauda, Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?, Lancet Infect. Dis
Savarino, Gennero, Sperber, Boelaert, The anti-HIV-1 activity of chloroquine, J. Clin. Virol
Singh, Sidhu, Friedman, Maheshwari, Mechanism of enhancement of the antiviral action of interferon against herpes simplex virus-1 by chloroquine, J. Interferon Cytokine Res
Tsai, Nara, Kung, Oroszlan, Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infectivity by chloroquine, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir
Van Der Hoek, Pyrc, Jebbink, Vermeulen-Oost, Berkhout et al., Identification of a new human coronavirus, Nat. Med
Vijgen, Keyaerts, Lemey, Maes, Van Reeth et al., Evolutionary history of the closely related group 2 coronaviruses: porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, bovine coronavirus, and human coronavirus OC43, J. Virol
Vijgen, Keyaerts, Lemey, Moes, Li et al., Circulation of genetically distinct contemporary human coronavirus OC43 strains, Virology
Vijgen, Keyaerts, Moes, Maes, Duson et al., Development of one-step, real-time, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays for absolute quantitation of human coronaviruses OC43 and 229E, J. Clin. Microbiol
Vijgen, Keyaerts, Moes, Thoelen, Wollants et al., Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event, J. Virol
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Erickson, Rollin et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol. J
Woo, Lau, Chu, Chan, Tsoi et al., Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia, J. Virol
Woo, Lau, Tsoi, Huang, Poon et al., Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1-associated community-acquired pneumonia, J. Infect. Dis
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit