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In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine

Keyaerts et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 323:1, 8 October 2004, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085
Aug 2004  
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HCQ for COVID-19
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4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19hcq.org
In Vitro study for SARS-CoV-1. IC50 of CQ for antiviral activity (8.8) is significantly lower than cytostatic activity CC50 (261.3), selectivity index of 30. IC50 for inhibition of SARS-CoV in vitro approximates the plasma concentrations of CQ reached during treatment of acute malaria. CQ may be considered for immediate use in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV infections.
34 preclinical studies support the efficacy of HCQ for COVID-19:
Keyaerts et al., 28 Aug 2004, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperHCQAll
In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine
Els Keyaerts, Leen Vijgen, Piet Maes, Johan Neyts, Marc Van Ranst
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085
We report on chloroquine, a 4-amino-quinoline, as an effective inhibitor of the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in vitro. Chloroquine is a clinically approved drug effective against malaria. We tested chloroquine phosphate for its antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-induced cytopathicity in Vero E6 cell culture. Results indicate that the IC 50 of chloroquine for antiviral activity (8.8 ± 1.2 lM) was significantly lower than its cytostatic activity; CC 50 (261.3 ± 14.5 lM), yielding a selectivity index of 30. The IC 50 of chloroquine for inhibition of SARS-CoV in vitro approximates the plasma concentrations of chloroquine reached during treatment of acute malaria. Addition of chloroquine to infected cultures could be delayed for up to 5 h postinfection, without an important drop in antiviral activity. Chloroquine, an old antimalarial drug, may be considered for immediate use in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV infections.
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