Hydroxychloroquine is effective, and consistently so used early, for Covid-19: A systematic review
Prodromos et al.
, Hydroxychloroquine is effective, and consistently so used early, for Covid-19: A systematic review
, New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100776 (meta analysis)
Meta analysis of 43 studies: "HCQ was found consistently effective against COVID-19 when used early, in the outpatient setting. It was found overall effective also including inpatient studies. No unbiased study found worse outcomes with HCQ use. No mortality or serious safety adverse event was found.
Currently there are 36 HCQ early treatment studies
and meta analysis shows:
Prodromos et al., 5 Oct 2020, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
Hydroxychloroquine is effective, and consistently so when provided early,
for COVID-19: a systematic review
C. Prodromos1 and T. Rumschlag2
1) Illinois Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center and 2) Foundation for Orthopaedics and Regenerative Medicine, Glenview, IL, USA
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown efﬁcacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some but not all studies. We hypothesized
that a systematic review would show HCQ to be effective against COVID-19, more effective when provided earlier, not associated with
worsening disease and safe. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar and Google for all reports on HCQ as a
treatment for COVID-19 patients. This included preprints and preliminary reports on larger COVID-19 studies. We examined the
studies for efﬁcacy, time of administration and safety. HCQ was found to be consistently effective against COVID-19 when provided
early in the outpatient setting. It was also found to be overall effective in inpatient studies. No unbiased study found worse outcomes
with HCQ use. No mortality or serious safety adverse events were found. HCQ is consistently effective against COVID-19 when
provided early in the outpatient setting, it is overall effective against COVID-19, it has not produced worsening of disease and it is safe.
© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Azithromycin, COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, outpatient, SARS-CoV-2
Original Submission: 9 September 2020; Revised Submission: 28 September 2020; Accepted: 29 September 2020
Article published online: 5 October 2020
Corresponding author: C. Prodromos, MD, 1714 N Milwaukee
Av, Glenview, IL 60025, USA.
COVID-19, and that efﬁcacy would be greater if HCQ was
provided earlier in the disease course. We also hypothesized
that some studies that failed to show efﬁcacy would be biased
against positive efﬁcacy and that no unbiased studies would
show worsening. Finally, we hypothesized that HCQ would be
found to be safe.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.