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Aminoquinolines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine

Sahraei et al., Int. J. Antimicrobial Agents, April 2020, 55:4, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105945
Mar 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Discussion of mechanisms of action, CQ vs. HCQ, early studies, safety.
Reviews covering hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 include Al-Bari, Brouqui, Colson, Derwand, Gao, Goldstein, Hecel, IHU, Kaur, Li, Loo, Matada, Roussel, Sahraei, Scheim, Todaro, Vigbedor.
Sahraei et al., 17 Mar 2020, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Aminoquinolines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine
Zahra Sahraei, Minoosh Shabani, Shervin Shokouhi, Ali Saffaei
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105945
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Declarations Funding: None. Competing Interests: None declared. Ethical Approval: Not required.
References
Colson, Rolain, Raoult, Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105923
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047
Jorge, Melles, Zhang, Lu, Rai et al., Hydroxychloroquine prescription trends and predictors for excess dosing per recent ophthalmology guidelines, Arthritis Res Ther, doi:10.1186/s13075-018-1634-8
Lim, Im, Cho, Bae, Klein et al., Pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine and its clinical implications in chemoprophylaxis against malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, doi:10.1128/AAC.00339-08
Plantone, Koudriavtseva, Current and future use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in infectious, immune, neoplastic, and neurological diseases: a mini-review, Clin Drug Investig, doi:10.1007/s40261-018-0656-y
Rainsford, Parke, Clifford-Rashotte, Kean, Therapy and pharmacological properties of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases, Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-015-0239-y
Savarino, Boelaert, Cassone, Majori, Cauda, Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(03)00806-5
Tan, Yam, Sun, Chu, An evaluation of chloroquine as a broad-acting antiviral against hand, foot and mouth disease, Antiviral Res, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.11.017
Xu, Mugopen, Data, Group, Open access epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30119-5
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