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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Update on Use of Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine to Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Gao et al., Biosci Trends, May 21, 2020, 14:2, 156-158, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.03072, Epub Apr 13, 2020
Apr 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Increasing evidence from completed clinical studies shows CQ and HCQ effective (HCQ more effective).
Reviews covering hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 include1-17.
Gao et al., 13 Apr 2020, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Update on use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Jianjun Gao, Shasha Hu
BioScience Trends, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.03072
Coronavirus disease 2019 has caused more than 1 million confirmed cases and approximately 70,000 deaths worldwide as of April 6, 2020 (1). Drugs that are specifically efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 have yet to be established. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat COVID-19. In China, chloroquine was added to the "Guidance for Corona Virus Disease 2019: Prevention, Control, Diagnosis, and Management" issued by the National Health Commission on February 18, 2020 (2). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization for chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 on March 28, 2020 (3). The European Medicines Agency contended that the two drugs should be used in clinical trials or national emergency use programs for the treatment of COVID-19 on April 1, 2020 (4). The low cost and easy availability of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine may help to curb this global public health emergency if their efficacy and safety are ultimately verified in clinical studies. Chloroquine phosphate is the first drug reported to display efficacy against COVID-19 in early clinical studies in China (5, 6) . Based on this encouraging finding, chloroquine phosphate was added to the Sixth Edition of the Guidance for tentative treatment of . The Sixth Edition recommended that adult patients in whom chloroquine is not contraindicated should take chloroquine phosphate tablets, 500 mg (300 mg for chloroquine) twice a day for no more than 10 days (7). To reduce the risk of adverse effects of chloroquine, the Seventh Edition of the Guidance, issued on March 3, 2020, recommends a reduced dosage and shortened
References
Chen, Hu, Zhang, Jiang, Han et al., Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: Results of a randomized clinical trial, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758
Chen, Liu, Liu, Xu, Xia et al., A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Huang, Tang, Pang, Treating COVID-19 with Chloroquine, J Mol Cell Biol
Lenzer, Covid-19: US gives emergency approval to hydroxychloroquine despite lack of evidence, BMJ
Liu, Cao, Xu, Wang, Zhang et al., Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study, Lancet
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COVID-19 Map. <i>https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html </i>(accessed ' 'April 6, 2020).'}, { 'key': '2', 'unstructured': '2. National Health Commission. Interpretation of the Sixth Edition of ' 'the Guidance for COVID-19: Prevention, Control, Diagnosis, and ' 'Management. ' '<i>http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/fkdt/202002/54e1ad5c2aac45c19eb541799bf637e9.shtml</i> ' '(accessed April 2, 2020). (in Chinese)'}, { 'key': '3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '3. Lenzer J. Covid-19: US gives emergency approval to hydroxychloroquine ' 'despite lack of evidence. BMJ. 2020; 369:m1335.', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1335'}, { 'key': '4', 'unstructured': '4. COVID-19: chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine only to be used in ' 'clinical trials or emergency use programmes. European Medicines Agency. ' '<i>https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/press-release/covid-19-chloroquine-hydroxychloroquine-only-be-used-clinical-trials-emergency-use-programmes_en.pdf</i> ' '(accessed April 6, 2020).'}, { 'key': '5', 'unstructured': '5. The Multicenter Collaboration Group of Department of Science and ' 'Technology of Guangdong Province and Health Commission of Guangdong ' 'Province for Chloroquine in the Treatment of Novel Coronavirus ' 'Pneumonia. Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment ' 'of novel coronavirus pneumonia. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2020; ' '43:E019. (in Chinese)'}, { 'key': '6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '6. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown ' 'apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in ' 'clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020; 14:72-73.', 'DOI': '10.5582/bst.2020.01047'}, { 'key': '7', 'unstructured': '7. Notice on Issuance of the Sixth Edition of the Guidance for COVID-19: ' 'Prevention, Control, Diagnosis, and Management. National Health ' 'Commission. ' '<i>http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202002/8334a8326dd94d329df351d7da8aefc2.shtml</i> ' '(accessed April 2, 2020). (in Chinese)'}, { 'key': '8', 'unstructured': '8. Notice on Issuance of the Seventh Edition of the Guidance for ' 'COVID-19: Prevention, Control, Diagnosis, and Management. National ' 'Health Commission. ' '<i>http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202003/46c9294a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml</i> ' '(Accessed April 2, 2020). (in Chinese)'}, { 'key': '9', 'unstructured': '9. National Health Commission. Audio transcript of a news briefing held ' 'by the State Council of China on March 17, 2020. ' '<i>http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/fkdt/202003/01426fc0590249ecac89a2874214e523.shtml</i> ' '(accessed April 6, 2020). (in Chinese)'}, { 'key': '10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '10. Huang M, Tang T, Pang P, <i>et al</i>. Treating COVID-19 with ' 'Chloroquine. J Mol Cell Biol. 2020.', 'DOI': '10.1093/jmcb/mjaa014'}, { 'key': '11', 'unstructured': '11. International meeting to share experiences to prevent and control ' 'COVID-19. ' '<i>https://e.dxy.cn/broadcast/live/id/13818?source=pagesidebar</i> ' '(Accessed April 8, 2020).'}, { 'key': '12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '12. Liu J, Cao R, Xu M, Wang X, Zhang H, Hu H, Li Y, Hu Z, Zhong W, Wang ' 'M. Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is ' 'effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection <i>in vitro</i>. Cell ' 'Discov. 2020; 6:16.', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0'}, { 'key': '13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '13. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, <i>et al</i>. Hydroxychloroquine and ' 'azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label ' 'non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;105949. ' 'DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949'}, { 'key': '14', 'unstructured': '14. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, <i>et al</i>. Clinical and ' 'microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and ' 'azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at least a six-day follow up: ' 'An observational study. Méditerranée Infection. 2020. ' '<i>https://www.mediterranee-infection.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/COVID-IHU-2-1.pdf ' '</i>(accessed April 6, 2020).'}, { 'key': '15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '15. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, <i>et al</i>. Clinical course and risk factors ' 'for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A ' 'retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020; 395:1054-1062.', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3'}, { 'key': '16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': '16. Chen ZW, Hu JJ, Zhang ZW, Jiang S, Han SM, Yan DD, Zhuang RH, Hu B, ' 'Zhang Z. Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: ' 'Results of a randomized clinical trial. medRxiv. 2020; doi: ' 'https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758'}, { 'key': '17', 'unstructured': '17. Chen J, Liu DP, Liu L, Xu QN, Xia L, Ling Y, Huang D, Song SL, Zhang ' 'DD, Qian ZP, Li T, Shen YZ, Lu HZ. A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine ' 'in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). ' 'Zhe Jiang Da Xue Xue Bao. 2020. 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