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Is hydroxychloroquine beneficial for COVID-19 patients?

Li et al., Cell Death & Disease volume 11, doi:10.1038/s41419-020-2721-8
Jul 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Review of the anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and protective vascular effects of CQ and HCQ, noting that HCQ may be preferable for COVID-19 due to fewer side effects.
Reviews covering hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 include1-17.
Li et al., 8 Jul 2020, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Is hydroxychloroquine beneficial for COVID-19 patients?
Xing Li, Ying Wang, Patrizia Agostinis, Arnold Rabson, Gerry Melino, Ernesto Carafoli, Yufang Shi, Erwei Sun
Cell Death & Disease, doi:10.1038/s41419-020-2721-8
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019. As similar cases rapidly emerged around the world 1-3 , the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020 and pronounced the rapidly spreading coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic on March 11, 2020 4 . The virus has reached almost all countries of the globe. As of June 3, 2020, the accumulated confirmed cases reached 6,479,405 with more than 383,013 deaths worldwide. The urgent and emergency care of COVID-19 patients calls for effective drugs, in addition to the beneficial effects of remdesivir 5 , to control the disease and halt the pandemic. US FDA approved hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) for COVID-19 as an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) with cautions issued soon after
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Med.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4089', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.1402793', 'volume': '194', 'author': 'J An', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'An, J., Woodward, J. J., Sasaki, T., Minie, M. & Elkon, K. B. Cutting ' 'edge: antimalarial drugs inhibit IFN-β production through blockade of ' 'cyclic GMP–AMP synthase–DNA interaction. J. Immunol.194, 4089–4093 ' '(2015).', 'journal-title': 'J. Immunol.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '421', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.celrep.2014.01.003', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'X Zhang', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Zhang, X. et al. The cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS forms an oligomeric ' 'complex with DNA and undergoes switch-like conformational changes in the ' 'activation loop. 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Rheumatol.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR57', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '693', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41584-018-0111-8', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'A Jorge', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Jorge, A. et al. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy—implications of research ' 'advances for rheumatology care. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol.14, 693–703 (2018).', 'journal-title': 'Nat. Rev. Rheumatol.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR58', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '317', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12016-015-8469-8', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'N Costedoat-Chalumeau', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Costedoat-Chalumeau, N. et al. A critical review of the effects of ' 'hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on the eye. Clin. Rev. Allergy ' 'Immunol.49, 317–326 (2015).', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR59', 'first-page': '808', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'N Costedoat-Chalumeau', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Costedoat-Chalumeau, N. et al. Heart conduction disorders related to ' 'antimalarials toxicity: an analysis of electrocardiograms in 85 patients ' 'treated with hydroxychloroquine for connective tissue diseases. ' 'Rheumatology 200746, 808–810 (2017).', 'journal-title': 'Rheumatology 2007'}, { 'key': '2721_CR60', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '919', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40264-018-0689-4', 'volume': '41', 'author': 'C Chatre', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Chatre, C. et al. Cardiac complications attributed to chloroquine and ' 'hydroxychloroquine: a systematic review of the literature. Drug Saf.41, ' '919–931 (2018).', 'journal-title': 'Drug Saf.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR61', 'first-page': '294', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'JC Yam', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Yam, J. C. & Kwok, A. K. Ocular toxicity of hydroxychloroquine. Hong ' 'Kong Med. J.12, 294–304 (2006).', 'journal-title': 'Hong Kong Med. J.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR62', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '186', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00393-020-00751-0', 'volume': '79', 'author': 'C Fiehn', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Fiehn, C. et al. Safety management of the treatment with antimalarial ' 'drugs in rheumatology. Interdisciplinary recommendations based on a ' 'systematic literature search. Z. Rheumatol.79, 186–194 (2020).', 'journal-title': 'Z. Rheumatol.'}, { 'key': '2721_CR63', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Mehra, M. R. et al. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a ' 'macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. ' 'The Lancet.\n' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6 (2020).', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6'}, { 'key': '2721_CR64', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'The Lancet Editors. Expression of concern. The Lancet. 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