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Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases

Al-Bari, M., Pharmacology Research & Perspectives, doi:10.1002/prp2.293
Jan 2017  
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Review of the use of chloroquine analogs for endosomal low pH dependent viruses including Ebola, Marburg, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, and HIV.
Reviews covering hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 include1-17.
Al-Bari et al., 23 Jan 2017, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
This PaperHCQAll
Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases
Md Abdul, Alim Al-Bari
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives, doi:10.1002/prp2.293
Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated. Since the analogs have interesting biochemical properties, these drugs are found to be effective against a wide variety of viral infections. As antiviral action, the analogs have been shown to inhibit acidification of endosome during the events of replication and infection. Moreover, immunomodulatory effects of analogs have been beneficial to patients with severe inflammatory complications of several viral diseases. Interestingly, one of the successful targeting strategies is the inhibition of HIV replication by the analogs in vitro which are being tested in several clinical trials. This review focuses on the potentialities of chloroquine analogs for the treatment of endosomal low pH dependent emerging viral diseases.
Disclosure The author wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome. The author also declared not to receive any assistance of a professional medical writer or similar service. Thus, it can be stated 'None to declare'.
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