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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ  Membrillo de Novales et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 166 patients in Spain Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.002) Membrillo de Novales et al., Preprints.., May 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Early Hydroxychloroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study

Membrillo de Novales et al., Preprints 2020, 2020050057, doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0057.v1
May 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
166 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, HCQ increased survival 1.4 - 1.8 times when patients admitted in early stages. Early is relative to hospital admission here - all patients were in relatively serious condition.
risk of death, 55.1% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.002, treatment 27 of 123 (22.0%), control 21 of 43 (48.8%), NNT 3.7.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Membrillo de Novales et al., 5 May 2020, retrospective, Spain, preprint, 19 authors, average treatment delay 7.0 days.
This PaperHCQAll
Early Hydroxychloroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study
Francisco Javier Membrillo, Germán Ramírez-Olivencia, Miriam Estébanez, Begoña De Dios, María Dolores Herrero, Tatiana Mata, Alberto M Borobia, Carlos Gutiérrez, María Simón, Ana Ochoa, Yolanda Martínez, Alejandro Aguirre, Francisco De Asís Alcántara, Pablo Fernández-González, Elena López, Paula Valle, Sergio Campos, María Navarro, Lucía Elena Ballester
Hydroxychloroquine has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Here we present an observational study. We analysed data from 164 patients admitted to our hospital diagnosed with COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine treatment was associated with an increase in the mean cumulative survival.
Bersanelli, Controversies about COVID-19 and anticancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunotherapy, doi:10.2217/imt-2020-0067
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Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
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Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Erickson, Rollin et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol J
Wang, Xu, Gao, Lu, Han et al., Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens, JAMA
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Zhang, Song, Tong, Fei, Guo et al., First case of COVID-19 in a patient with multiple myeloma successfully treated with tocilizumab, Blood Adv, doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001907
Late treatment
is less effective
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