Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Deaths induced by compassionate use of hydroxychloroquine during the first COVID-19 wave: an estimate

Pradelle et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2023.116055
Jan 2024  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Highly flawed analysis using an incorrect estimate of mortality from Axfors et al.
Axfors et al. assign 89% weight to the RECOVERY and SOLIDARITY trials, producing the same result. These trials used excessively high non-patient-customized dosage in very sick late stage patients, results are not generalizable to typical dosage or earlier treatment. For CQ, 97% weight is assigned to Borba et al., a study that does not have a control group (the study compares two different dosages of CQ).
For more discussion of flaws see and
Beaudart et al. confirm that, among very late treatment studies, excess mortality is only seen with excessive dosage.
Using the 7 million estimated COVID-19 deaths from OWID we can estimate the number of lives that could have been saved by HCQ use:
1.4 million fewer deaths, based on 213 late treatment mortality results
5.3 million fewer deaths, based on 13 early treatment mortality results
This does not account for patients saved by the limited use before or against the politicization, patients that died due to excessive dosage/very late treatment, or the use of other effective treatments.
7 meta analyses show significant improvements with hydroxychloroquine for mortality Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola, Risch, Risch (B), Stricker, hospitalization Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola, recovery Prodromos, combined death/hospitalization/cases Ladapo, and cases García-Albéniz.
Currently there are 38 HCQ for COVID-19 early treatment studies, showing 76% lower mortality [60‑86%], 67% lower ventilation [-710‑99%], 31% lower ICU admission [1‑53%], and 41% lower hospitalization [28‑51%].
Pradelle et al., 2 Jan 2024, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Deaths induced by compassionate use of hydroxychloroquine during the first COVID-19 wave: an estimate
Alexiane Pradelle, Sabine Mainbourg, Steeve Provencher, Emmanuel Massy, Guillaume Grenet, Jean-Christophe Lega
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2023.116055
Background: During the first wave of COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used off-label despite the absence of evidence documenting its clinical benefits. Since then, a meta-analysis of randomised trials showed that HCQ use was associated with an 11% increase in the mortality rate. We aimed to estimate the number of HCQ-related deaths worldwide. Methods and findings: We estimated the worldwide in-hospital mortality attributable to HCQ use by combining the mortality rate, HCQ exposure, number of hospitalised patients, and the increased relative risk of death with HCQ. The mortality rate in hospitalised patients for each country was calculated using pooled prevalence estimated by a meta-analysis of published cohorts. The HCQ exposure was estimated using median and extreme estimates from the same systematic review. The number of hospitalised patients during the first wave was extracted from dedicated databases. The systematic review included 44 cohort studies (Belgium: k = 1, France: k = 2, Italy: k = 12, Spain: k = 6, Turkey: k = 3, USA: k = 20). HCQ prescription rates varied greatly from one country to another (range 16-84%). Overall, using median estimates of HCQ use in each country, we estimated that 16,990 HCQ-related in-hospital deaths (range 6267-19256) occurred in the countries with available data. The median number of HCQ-related deaths in Belgium, Turkey, France, Italy, Spain, and the USA was 240 (range not estimable), 95 (range 92-128), 199 (range not estimable), 1822 (range 1170-2063), 1895 (range 1475-2094) and 12739 (3244-15570), respectively. Conclusions: Although our estimates are limited by their imprecision, these findings illustrate the hazard of drug repurposing with low-level evidence.
Adrish, Chilimuri, Mantri, Association of smoking status with outcomes in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, BMJ Open Respir. Res
Agostini, Andres, Sims, Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease, mBio
Altuntas, Ata, Yigenoglu, COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, Bone Marrow Transpl
Ameri, Inciardi, Pasquale, Pulmonary embolism in patients with COVID-19: characteristics and outcomes in the Cardio-COVID Italy multicenter study, Clin. Res Cardiol
Arshad, Kilgore, Chaudhry, Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and combination in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, Int J. Infect. Dis
Avery, Chiang, Marr, Inpatient COVID-19 outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients compared to non-solid organ transplant patients: A retrospective cohort, Am. J. Transpl
Axfors, Schmitt, Janiaud, Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials, Nat. Commun
Bahl, Van Baalen, Ortiz, Early predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 in a large American cohort, Intern Emerg. Med
Bakanligi, COVID-19 Bilgilendirme Platformu
Bartoletti, Marconi, Scudeller, Efficacy of corticosteroid treatment for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19: a multicentre study, Clin. Microbiol Infect
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 -Final Report, N. Engl. J. Med
Bosquet, Affo, Plaisance, Poenou, Mortier et al., Outside any therapeutic trial prescription of hydroxychloroquine for hospitalized patients with covid-19 during the first wave of the pandemic: A national inquiry of prescription patterns among French hospitalists, PLOS ONE
Brar, Pinheiro, Shusterman, COVID-19 Severity and Outcomes in Patients With Cancer: A Matched Cohort Study, J. Clin. Oncol
Casas-Rojo, Antón-Santos, Millán-Núñez-Cortés, Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain: Results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry, Rev. Clin. Esp. (Barc. )
Catteau, Dauby, Montourcy, Low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy and mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a nationwide observational study of 8075 participants, Int J. Antimicrob. Agents
Cavalcanti, Zampieri, Rosa, Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med
Chalmers, Matthews, What are the implications of optimism bias in clinical research?, Lancet
Chalmers, Randomize the first patient!, N. Engl. J. Med
Coronavirus, COVID-19) Dashboard
Correia, Sette, Santos, Magliano, Toscas, Brazil's COVID-19 guidelines: political hijack of public health, Lancet
El-Solh, Lawson, Carter, El-Solh, Mergenhagen, Comparison of in-hospital mortality risk prediction models from COVID-19, PLoS One
Elvira D 'andrea, Desai, He, Cardiovascular Risks of Hydroxychloroquine vs Methotrexate in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol
Fantini, Chahinian, Yahi, Synergistic antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in combination against SARS-CoV-2: What molecular dynamics studies of virus-host interactions reveal, Int J. Antimicrob. Agents
Fauvel, Weizman, Trimaille, Pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients: a French multicentre cohort study, Eur. Heart J
Franco, Facciolongo, Tonelli, Feasibility and clinical impact of outof-ICU noninvasive respiratory support in patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia, Eur. Respir. J
Fried, Crawford, Mospan, Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11 721 Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Hospitalized Across the United States, Clin. Infect. Dis
Frontera, Sabadia, Lalchan, A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in, New York City, Neurology
Fumagalli, Rozzini, Vannini, Clinical risk score to predict inhospital mortality in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open
Gaudart, Landier, Huiart, Factors associated with the spatial heterogeneity of the first wave of COVID-19 in France: a nationwide geoepidemiological study, Lancet Public Health
Gil-Rodrigo, Miró, Piñera, Analysis of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 based on a series of 1000 patients treated in Spanish emergency departments, Emergencias
Guaraldi, Meschiari, Cozzi-Lepri, Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Rheuma
Gutiérrez-Abejón, Tamayo, Martín-García, Álvarez, Herrera-Gómez, Clinical Profile, Treatment and Predictors during the First COVID-19 Wave: A Population-Based Registry Analysis from Castile and Leon Hospitals, Int J. Environ. Res Public Health
Harrigan, Hubbard, Thomas, Association Between US Administration Endorsement of Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 and Outpatient Prescribing, J. GEN INTERN MED
Ho, Narasimhan, Sheehan, Wu, Fung, Controversy over smoking in COVID-19-A real world experience in New York city, J. Med Virol
Horby, Mafham, Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med
Ionescu, Jaiyesimi, Petrescu, Association of anticoagulation dose and survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A retrospective propensity scoreweighted analysis, Eur. J. Haematol
Ishiguro, Muro, Murase, Drug-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia due to hydroxychloroquine in a chilblain lupus patient, J. Dermatol
Janiaud, Axfors, Van't Hooft, The worldwide clinical trial research response to the COVID-19 pandemic -the first 100 days, F1000Res
Kaeuffer, Hyaric, Fabacher, Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with severe COVID-19: prospective analysis of 1,045 hospitalised cases in North-Eastern France, Eur. Surveill
Karni, Thomas, Trump Says He's Taking Hydroxychloroquine, Prompting Warning From Health Experts, The New York Times
Keller, Kitsis, Arora, Effect of Systemic Glucocorticoids on Mortality or Mechanical Ventilation in Patients With COVID-19, J. Hosp. Med
Kim, Adeniji, Latt, Predictors of Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease: US Multi-center Study, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol
Kim, Volodarskiy, Sultana, Prognostic Utility of Right Ventricular Remodeling Over Conventional Risk Stratification in Patients With COVID-19, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol
Kokturk, Babayigit, Kul, The predictors of COVID-19 mortality in a nationwide cohort of Turkish patients, Respir. Med
Lane, Weaver, Kostka, Risk of hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational, retrospective study, Lancet Rheumatol
Laszkowska, Faye, Kim, Disease Course and Outcomes of COVID-19 Among Hospitalized Patients With Gastrointestinal Manifestations, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol
Lavazza, Farina, The Role of Experts in the Covid-19 Pandemic and the Limits of Their Epistemic Authority in Democracy, Front. Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00356
Le, Coronavirus: l'Algérie ne compte pas renoncer à l'hydroxychloroquine
Li, Yoo, Baram, Tocilizumab in the Management of COVID-19: A Preliminary Report, Am. J. Med Sci
Lutaud, Scronias, Ward, Verger, The hydroxychloroquine debate: a therapeutic dilemma for general practitioners, Eur. J. Public Health
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine Usage in United States Veterans Hospitalized with COVID-19, Med (N. Y)
Mahévas, Tran, Roumier, Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: observational comparative study using routine care data, BMJ
Marin, Martin, Val, Bosch Peligero, Safety of Short-Term Treatments with Oral Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with and without COVID-19: A Systematic Review, Pharm. (Basel)
Martínez-Sanz, Muriel, Ron, Effects of tocilizumab on mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a multicentre cohort study, Clin. Microbiol Infect
Mathieu, Ritchie, Rodés-Guirao, Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)
Mauer, Chiecca, Carioli, The First 110,593 COVID-19 Patients Hospitalised in Lombardy: A Regionwide Analysis of Case Characteristics, Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes, Int J. Public Health
Mezzio, Nguyen, Kiselica, O'day, Evaluating the Presence of Cognitive Biases in Health Care Decision Making: A Survey of U.S. Formulary Decision Makers, J. Manag Care Spec. Pharm
Mikami, Miyashita, Yamada, Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City, J. Gen. Intern Med
Mitacchione, Schiavone, Curnis, Impact of prior statin use on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients: data from tertiary referral hospitals during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, J. Clin. Lipido
Motola, Bonaldo, Montanaro, Safety profile of hydroxychloroquine used off-label for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: A descriptive study based on EudraVigilance data, Fundam. Clin. Pharm
Muller, Systemic toxicity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: prevalence, mechanisms, risk factors, prognostic and screening possibilities, Rheuma Int
Niburski, Niburski, Impact of Trump's Promotion of Unproven COVID-19 Treatments and Subsequent Internet Trends: Observational Study, J. Med Internet Res
Novelli, Raimondi, Ghirardi, At the peak of COVID-19 age and disease severity but not comorbidities are predictors of mortality: COVID-19 burden in Bergamo, Italy, Panminerva Med
Nukoolkarn, Lee, Malaisree, Aruksakulwong, Hannongbua, Molecular dynamic simulations analysis of ritonavir and lopinavir as SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibitors, J. Theor. Biol
Núñez-Gil, Estrada, Fernández-Pérez, Fernández-Rozas, Martín-Sánchez et al., The COVID-19 curve, health system overload, and mortality, Emergencias
Observateur, Estrosi autorise le recours à la chloroquine au CHU de Nice
Ozturk, Turgutalp, Arici, Mortality analysis of COVID-19 infection in chronic kidney disease, haemodialysis and renal transplant patients compared with patients without kidney disease: a nationwide analysis from Turkey, Nephrol. Dial. Transpl
Patti, Mennuni, Della Corte, Spinoni, Sainaghi et al., Change over time of COVID-19 hospital presentation in Northern Italy, Eur. J. Intern Med
Petersen, Koopmans, Go, Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics, Lancet Infect. Dis
Piano, Dalbeni, Vettore, Abnormal liver function tests predict transfer to intensive care unit and death in COVID-19, Liver Int
Piazza, Campia, Hurwitz, Registry of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolic Complications in Patients With COVID-19, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol
Prats-Uribe, Sena, Lai, Use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in hospital patients with covid-19: multinational network cohort study, BMJ
Pulla, India expands use of controversial drug for coronavirus despite safety concerns, Nature
Pérez-Belmonte, Torres-Peña, López-Carmona, Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study, BMC Med
Redondo-Bravo, Sierra Moros, Martínez, Sánchez, The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: characterisation of cases and risk factors for severe outcomes, as at 27 April 2020, Eur. Surveill
Rinaldi, Bartoletti, Bussini, COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: No difference in survival compared to general population, Transpl. Infect. Dis
Rosenberg, Dufort, Udo, Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State, JAMA
Saposnik, Redelmeier, Ruff, Tobler, Cognitive biases associated with medical decisions: a systematic review, BMC Med Inf. Decis. Mak
Satarker, Ahuja, Banerjee, Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19: Potential Mechanism of Action Against SARS-CoV-2, Curr. Pharm. Rep
Schiavone, Gasperetti, Mancone, Oral anticoagulation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: An Italian multicenter experience, Int J. Cardiol
Sedgwick, What is number needed to treat (NNT)?, BMJ
Souris, Gonzalez, COVID-19: Spatial analysis of hospital case-fatality rate in France, PLoS One
Sun, Troxell, Tibshirani, Public health factors help explain cross country heterogeneity in excess death during the COVID19 pandemic, Sci. Rep
Tang, Cao, Han, Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial, BMJ
Villani, Mckee, Cascini, Ricciardi, Boccia, Comparison of Deaths Rates for COVID-19 across Europe During the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Front. Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.620416
Yeramaneni, Doshi, Sands, Cooper, Kurbegov et al., Famotidine Use Is Not Associated With 30-day Mortality: A Coarsened Exact Match Study in 7158 Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 From a Large Healthcare System, Gastroenterology
Yigenoglu, Ata, Altuntas, The outcome of COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancy, J. Med Virol
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop