Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Composition analysis of falsified chloroquine phosphate samples seized during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tchounga et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113761
Nov 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Analysis of fake CQ tablets finding:
- no CQ in six samples, substituted with metronidazole (at sub-therapeutic levels) or paracetamol.
- trace levels of paracetamol and chloramphenicol in four and two samples respectively.
- CQ levels too low in two samples.
7 meta analyses show significant improvements with hydroxychloroquine for mortality Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola, Risch, Risch (B), Stricker, hospitalization Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola, recovery Prodromos, combined death/hospitalization/cases Ladapo, and cases García-Albéniz.
Currently there are 38 HCQ for COVID-19 early treatment studies, showing 76% lower mortality [60‑86%], 67% lower ventilation [-710‑99%], 31% lower ICU admission [1‑53%], and 41% lower hospitalization [28‑51%].
Tchounga et al., 12 Nov 2020, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Composition analysis of falsified chloroquine phosphate samples seized during the COVID-19 pandemic
C A Waffo Tchounga, P Y Sacre, P Ciza, R Ngono, E Ziemons, Ph H Hubert, R D Marini
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113761
The proliferation of falsified medicines can cause serious public health issues, particularly in the context of a global pandemic such as the actual COVID-19 pandemic. Our study involved eight chloroquine phosphate medicines seized in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Niger during March and May 2020. These suspect samples were first analyzed in a screening phase using field tools such as handheld Raman spectroscopy (TruScan) and then in a confirmation phase using laboratory tools such as hyperspectral Raman imaging and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed the falsified nature of the samples, highlighting the presence of metronidazole at low dose in four samples (16.6, 15.2, 15.2 and 14.5 mg/tab), too low levels of chloroquine in two samples (2.4 and 20.2 mg/tab), and substitution of chloroquine phosphate by paracetamol in one sample (255.7 mg/tab). The results also confirmed that four samples had been adulterated with paracetamol in trace amounts and two of them presented traces of chloramphenicol.
In the frame of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for specific products (allegedly treating the disease) may increase rapidly at a global scale. This constitute an opportunity for criminal groups and unscrupulous sellers to sell substandard and falsified medicines. In this context, the application of rapid, easy-to-use techniques such as Raman spectroscopy should make it possible to combat efficiently the resurgence of poor-quality medicines. However, handheld devices are not sensitive enough to detect trace level contaminants or low-dosed active ingredients. Therefore, hyperspectral imaging may help in this context providing also a "signature" of the product composition possibly allowing the grouping of falsification cases. CRediT authorship contribution statement Declaration of Competing Interest The authors report no declarations of interest. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020. 113761.
References
Baird, Chloroquine resistance in plasmodium vivax, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)92002-3
Basco, Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. xix. quality of antimalarial drugs used for self-medication, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, doi:10.1179/1364859411Y.0000000030
Basco, Ringwald, Manéné, Chandenier, False chloroquine resistance in Africa, Lancet, doi:10.1128/AAC.48.11.4075-4083.2004
Brunneton, La Qualité Des Médicaments Sur Le Marché Pharmaceutique Africain. Etude Analytique Dans Trois Pays: Cameroun, Madagascar, Tchad, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.245
Brüssow, The novel coronavirus -a snapshot of current knowledge, Microb. Biotechnol, doi:10.1080/08998280.2020.1731272
Ciza, Sacré, Waffo, Coïc, Avohou et al., Comparing the qualitative performances of handheld NIR and Raman spectrophotometers for the detection of falsified pharmaceutical products, Talanta, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2019.02.032
Coic, Sacré, Dispas, Sakira, Fillet et al., Comparison of hyperspectral imaging techniques for the elucidation of falsified medicines composition, Talanta, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2012.09.016
Colson, -M. Rolain, Raoult, Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105923
Columbus, Brust, Arroliga, novel coronavirus: an emerging global threat, Baylor Univ. Med. Cent. Proc, doi:10.1080/08998280.2020.1731272
Coïc, Sacré, Avohou, Deidda, De Bleye et al., Recent developments of Raman spectroscopy for the qualitative analysis of falsified and substandard medicines, Eur. Pharm. Rev, doi:10.1002/dta.1843
Deidda, Sacré, Clavaud, Coïc, Avohou et al., Vibrational spectroscopy in analysis of pharmaceuticals: critical review of innovative portable and handheld NIR and Raman spectrophotometers, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem, doi:10.1016/j.trac.2019.02.035
Dégardin, Roggo, Margot, Understanding and fighting the medicine counterfeit market, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal, doi:10.1016/j.forc.2018.02.004
Erku, Belachew, Abrha, Sinnollareddy, Thomas et al., When fear and misinformation go viral: pharmacists' role in deterring medication misinformation during the "infodemic" surrounding COVID-19, Res. Soc. Adm. Pharm, doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01661-3
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hoang, Meddeb et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105923
Gnegel, Hauk, Neci, Mutombo, Nyaah et al., Identification of falsified chloroquine tablets in Africa at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0363
Guerin, Singh-Phulgenda, Strub-Wourgaft, The consequence of COVID-19 on the global supply of medical products: why Indian generics matter for the world, F1000Research, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30136-4
Hajjou, Qin, Bradby, Bempong, Lukulay, Assessment of the performance of a handheld Raman device for potential use as a screening tool in evaluating medicines quality, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal, doi:10.1080/14787210.2016.1187560
Kohler, Mackey, Why the COVID-19 pandemic should be a call for action to advance equitable access to medicines, BMC Med, doi:10.12688/f1000research.23057.1
Newton, Bond, Adeyeye, Antignac, Ashenef et al., COVID-19 and risks to the supply and quality of tests, drugs, and vaccines, Lancet Glob. Health, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30136-4
Newton, Caillet, Guerin, A link between poor quality antimalarials and malaria drug resistance? Expert Rev, Anti-Infect. Ther, doi:10.1080/14787210.2016.1187560
Newton, Green, Fernández, Day, White, Counterfeit anti-infective drugs, Lancet Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(06)70581-3
Rebiere, Ghyselinck, Lempereur, Brenier, Investigation of the composition of anabolic tablets using near infrared spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging, Drug Test. Anal, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2013.01.009
Rodionova, Balyklova, Titova, Pomerantsev, Application of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for revealing of the 'high quality fakes' among the medicines, Forensic Chem, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2007.03.023
Roggo, Chalus, Maurer, Lema-Martinez, Edmond et al., A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal, doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(06)70581-3
Sawadogo, Al-Kamarany, Al-Mekhlafi, Elkarbane, Al-Adhroey et al., Quality of chloroquine tablets available in Africa, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)62397-5
Schneider, Tu, Africa and counterfeit pharmaceuticals in the times of COVID-19, J. Intellect. Prop. Law Pract, doi:10.1093/jiplp/jpaa073
Whitby, Wood, Veenendaal, Rieckmann, Chloroquine-resistant plasmodium VIVAX, Lancet, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0363
Whitworth, COVID-19: a fast evolving pandemic, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg, doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13557
Who, A Study on the Public Health and Socioeconomic Impact of Substandard and Falsified Medical Products, doi:10.1787/a7c7e054-en
Who, WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring System for Substandard and Falsified Medical Products, doi:10.1093/jiplp/jpaa073
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit