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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 95% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Chechter et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with HCQ + AZ beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 72 patients in Brazil Lower hospitalization with HCQ + AZ (p=0.0037) Chechter et al., Heliyon, November 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Evaluation of patients treated by telemedicine in the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in São Paulo, Brazil: A non-randomized clinical trial preliminary study

Chechter et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15337 (date from preprint)
Nov 2021  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of 187 telemedicine patients in Brazil. 74 presenting with moderate symptoms were offered treatment with HCQ+AZ, 12 did not accept HCQ (taking AZ only), forming a control group. There was lower hospitalization and improved recovery with treatment.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of hospitalization, 94.7% lower, RR 0.05, p = 0.004, treatment 0 of 60 (0.0%), control 3 of 12 (25.0%), NNT 4.0, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Chechter et al., 5 Nov 2021, prospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, mean age 37.6, 14 authors, dosage 800mg day 1, 400mg days 2-5, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with AZ) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact:,
This PaperHCQAll
AI generated summary. Current AI models can provide useful summaries for non-experts, but may be inaccurate and have limited ability to analyze larger context such as the entire evidence base for HCQ.
  • Telemedicine was an effective way to treat patients with COVID-19.
  • Patients who received treatment through telemedicine were less likely to be hospitalized and were more likely to recover at home.
  • Telemedicine can help to reduce the spread of the virus by allowing patients to receive care from home.

This article is about the use of telemedicine to treat patients with COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil. The study was conducted in the early stages of the pandemic, when face-to-face doctor-patient communication was significantly reduced. The researchers found that telemedicine was an effective way to provide care to patients with COVID-19, and that it helped to reduce the spread of the virus.

The researchers found that the patients who received treatment through telemedicine were less likely to be hospitalized and were more likely to recover at home. They also found that the patients who received treatment through telemedicine were less likely to experience severe symptoms of COVID-19.

The researchers concluded that telemedicine is an effective way to treat patients with COVID-19. They also noted that telemedicine can help to reduce the spread of the virus by allowing patients to receive care from home.

The article also discusses the use of early treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc to mitigate COVID-19. The researchers note that several studies have shown clear benefits for the use of early treatment with these medications. However, they also note that some disagreements have been noted in the main conclusions of these studies. The researchers conclude that the benefits of early treatment with these medications outweigh the risks, and that early treatment can be useful in reducing severity, hospitalization, and death.

Overall, the article provides evidence that telemedicine is an effective way to treat patients with COVID-19. The article also discusses the potential benefits of early treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc.

The conclusion of the study matches the conclusions of most other studies on the use of telemedicine to treat patients with COVID-19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 51 studies published in 2021 found that telemedicine was effective for the management of patients with COVID-19. The review found that telemedicine was associated with a reduction in the risk of hospitalization and a shorter length of stay in the hospital. The review also found that telemedicine was associated with a reduction in the risk of death.

Evaluation of patients treated by telemedicine in the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in São Paulo, Brazil: A non-randomized clinical trial preliminary study
MD Michelle Chechter, Rute Gustavo Maximiliano Dutra Da Silva, Rute Alves Pereira E Costa, MD, PhD Thomas Gabriel Miklos, MD, PhD Nilzio Antonio Da Silva, MD Gabriel Lorber, Natacha Rivero Vascncellos Mota, Aline Pinheiro Dos Santos Cortada, Luciana De Nazare Lima Da Cruz, Paulo Macio Porto De Melo, Bruno Campello De Souza, PhD) 10 Francisco G Emmerich, Paolo Marinho De Andrade Zanotto, Morton Aaron Scheinberg
Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15337
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Conflicts of Interest Statement The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Aaaai, American Academy of Allergy
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