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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

HCQ for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 411 studies

Covid Analysis
Jun 2024  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19hcq.org
Early treatment shows 66% [54‑74%] lower risk with pooled effects in 39 studies. Results are similar for higher quality studies and for peer-reviewed studies. The 17 mortality and 16 hospitalization results show 76% [61‑85%] lower mortality and 41% [28‑51%] lower hospitalization.
Late treatment is less successful, with 22% [18‑26%] lower risk from 264 studies. Very late treatment may be harmful, especially with excessive dosages.
Randomized Controlled Trials show 19% [6‑30%] lower risk, or 25% [11‑37%] when excluding late treatment.
There is substantial bias towards publishing negative results. Prospective studies show higher efficacy. Negative RCTs received priority treatment at top journals, while positive trials report difficulty publishing. There is a strong geographical bias, with significantly more negative studies from North America.
Results are missing for 53% of early treatment and prophylaxis RCTs, compared to 18% for late treatment, consistent with the higher prevalence of positive studies for early treatment and prophylaxis, and bias against publishing positive results.
No treatment or intervention is 100% effective. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, which may be significantly more effective. Lung pharmacokinetics show high inter-individual variability1.
All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix. Multiple other meta analyses show efficacy for early treatment or prophylaxis2-9.
8 meta analyses show significant improvements with hydroxychloroquine for mortality1-4, hospitalization1, recovery5, combined death/hospitalization/cases6, and cases7,8.
This PaperHCQAll
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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