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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Progression -890% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Ho et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 325 patients in Malaysia Higher progression with HCQ (p=0.025) Ho et al., Malaysian J. Medicine and H.., Mar 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: A Single Center, Retrospective Cohort Study

Ho et al., Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, doi:10.47836/mjmhs19.2.3
Mar 2023  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 325 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Malaysia, showing higher progression with HCQ, however the groups are not comparable. 17 HCQ vs. 3 control patients had severity category ≥3 at baseline (7 vs. 0 for severity ≥4).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
risk of progression, 889.7% higher, RR 9.90, p = 0.03, treatment 4 of 91 (4.4%), control 1 of 234 (0.4%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ho et al., 31 Mar 2023, retrospective, Malaysia, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, average treatment delay 8.05 days.
This PaperHCQAll
Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: A Single Center, Retrospective Cohort Study
Wen Chung Ho, Wei Xin Yong, Khai Shin Tan, Woh Yon Mak, Mandeep Kaur Gill, Agnes Hui, Ching Lok, Shazwani Zulkifli, Salmah Idris, Erwan Khairil, Khalid, Loon Chee, Leong, Kang Nien How, Nien Kang, MRCP How
Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease in December 2019 called for a rapid solution, leading to repurposing of existing drugs. Due to its immunomodulatory effect and antiviral properties, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used in early 2020 for treatment of COVID-19 patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcome of HCQ monotherapy in Malaysia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in COVID-19 ward in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), from March to April 2020. A total of 446 COVID-19 patients were recruited, only 325 patients were finally included for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, with a significant value set at p<0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients were 38.5 ±15.5. They were majority male, (n=210, 64.6%) Malaysian (n=239, 73.5%) and Malay ethnicity (n=204, 62.8%). Ninety-one (28%) patients received HCQ monotherapy. HCQ monotherapy was associated with worse outcome (OR: 10.29, 95% CI 1.17-90.80). There was a significant difference in mean length of stay between those with and without HCQ treatment (t323=5.868, p<0.001, 95% CI, 2.56-5.31). The average length of stay for HCQ treated group was 3.84 days longer than those without treatment. 6.6% of the patient receiving HCQ monotherapy encountered adverse drug effects. Conclusion: Similar to study reported worldwide, our study demonstrated that HCQ did not improve length of stay and the outcome of COVID-19 patients.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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