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Does Widespread Use of Hydroxychloroquine Reduce the Transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19? An Ecological Correlational Study

Souza Neves, F., Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, doi:10.2174/1871526523666230522114836
May 2023  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19hcq.org
Analysis of 7 states in Brazil showing that consumption of HCQ was a significant negative predictor of the COVID-19 effective reproduction number (Rt), and that higher HCQ consumption was associated with faster decline of Rt, suggesting a dose-response relationship and a causal relationship.
Souza Neves et al., 22 May 2023, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
This PaperHCQAll
Does Widespread Use of Hydroxychloroquine Reduce the Transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19? An Ecological Correlational Study
Fabricio Souza Neves
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, doi:10.2174/1871526523666230522114836
Background: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was widely used as a possible antiviral agent. Current knowledge indicates that HCQ has little or no effect on individual clinical outcomes of COVID-19, but populational effects on disease transmissibility are still unknown. Objective: This study investigates the hypothesis that massive HCQ consumption by a population may contribute to reducing the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 spread by reducing the viral load of infected individuals. Methods: Public database of seven states from Brazil in 2020 were assessed, before the start of COVID-19 vaccination. The daily values of the COVID-19 effective reproduction number (Rt) were obtained. Associations between Rt values and the proposed predictor variables (prevalence of COVID-19 as a marker of collective immunity; social isolation indices; consumption of HCQ) were tested using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: In all seven states, consumption of HCQ was a significant negative predictor of Rt (β ranged from -0.295 to -0.502, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the mean derivative of Rt during the declining period of the COVID-19 incidence (the mean rate of variation) was also significantly negatively related to the mean HCQ consumption in that period (R 2 = 0.895; β = -0.783; p = 0.011), meaning that the higher the HCQ consumption, the faster the decline of COVID-19 Rt. It suggests a dose-response phenomenon and a causal relationship in this association. Conclusion: The results of this study are compatible with the hypothesis that HCQ has small but significant in vivo antiviral effects that are able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility at the populational level.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available on the publisher's website along with the published article.
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