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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Viral clearance time 12% Improvement Relative Risk Viral clearance time (b) 59% Hafez et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,486 patients in United Arab Emirates Faster viral clearance with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.59) Hafez et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11040498 Favors HCQ Favors control
Antiviral Used among Non-Severe COVID-19 Cases in Relation to Time till Viral Clearance: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Hafez et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11040498
Hafez et al., Antiviral Used among Non-Severe COVID-19 Cases in Relation to Time till Viral Clearance: A Retrospective.., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11040498
Apr 2022   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective hospitalized patients in the United Arab Emirates, showing no significant difference in viral clearance with different combinations of HCQ, AZ, favipiravir, and lopinavir/ritonavir.
viral clearance time, 12.3% lower, HR 0.88, p = 0.59, treatment 40, control 1,446, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, Cox proportional hazards.
viral clearance time, 58.7% lower, HR 0.41, p = 0.09, treatment 4, control 1,446, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, HCQ + favipiravir + lopinavir/ritonavir, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hafez et al., 8 Apr 2022, retrospective, United Arab Emirates, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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Abstract: antibiotics Article Antiviral Used among Non-Severe COVID-19 Cases in Relation to Time till Viral Clearance: A Retrospective Cohort Study Wael Hafez 1,2, *, Husam Saleh 1 , Ziad Al Baha 1 , Mishal Tariq 1 , Samah Hamdan 1 and Shougyat Ahmed 1 1 2 *   Citation: Hafez, W.; Saleh, H.; Al Baha, Z.; Tariq, M.; Hamdan, S.; Ahmed, S. Antiviral Used among Non-Severe COVID-19 Cases in Relation to Time till Viral Clearance: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 498. https:// NMC Royal Hospital, 16th Street, Khalifa City, Abu Dhabi P.O. BOX 35233, United Arab Emirates; (H.S.); (Z.A.B.); (M.T.); (S.H.); (S.A.) The Medical Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine, The National Research Center, El Buhouth Street, Cairo 12622, Egypt Correspondence:; Tel.: +971-22035000 or +971-561987354 Abstract: (1) Background: The WHO identified COVID-19 as a fast-growing epidemic worldwide. A few antivirals have shown promising effectiveness in treating COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the correlation between antiviral drugs and the time until viral clearance of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included 1731 non-severe COVID-19 patients treated in NMC Royal Hospital, UAE. (3) Results: A total of 1446 patients received symptomatic treatment only (mean age of 35.6 ± 9.0 years). The analyzed antiviral treatment protocols were azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir. The produced Kaplan–Meier plots showed no significant differences in the time until viral clearance among the compared protocols, which showed overlapping confidence intervals, which were determined by performing the log-rank and adjusted pairwise log-rank tests (p = 0.2, log-rank = 9.3). The age and gender of patients did not significantly affect the rate of viral clearance regardless of the antiviral therapy administered, even when compared to patients who received symptomatic treatment only, with the exception of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azithromycin, and favipiravir, which increased the odds of a faster rate of viral clearance by 46% after adjustments. (4) Conclusions: No significant differences were observed regarding the time until viral clearance among non-severe COVID-19 patients following the prescription of different antiviral drugs. Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral drugs; drug repurposing; viral clearance; symptomatic treatment Academic Editors: Diaa Alrahmany and Islam M. Ghazi Received: 4 March 2022 Accepted: 4 April 2022 Published: 8 April 2022 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://
Late treatment
is less effective
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