Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Hydroxychloroquine as an aerosol might markedly reduce and even prevent severe clinical symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection

Klimke et al., Med. Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109783
Apr 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Proposal to use HCQ as an aerosol in order to reach sufficient therapeutic levels at the alveolar epithelial cells. Authors suggest this will reduce adverse drug reactions compared with oral application, and the increase in tolerability enables a broader use for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, which would be an advantage especially for high-risk, multi-morbid and elderly patients. Empirical data on self-medication with a one-week aerosol application is presented, showing inhalation was well tolerated.
5 studies investigate novel formulations of HCQ for improved efficacy Alsmadi, Faísca, Kavanagh, Klimke, Zelenko
Klimke et al., 27 Apr 2020, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Hydroxychloroquine as an aerosol might markedly reduce and even prevent severe clinical symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection
A Klimke, G Hefner, B Will, U Voss
Medical Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109783
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Consequences of the hypothesis and discussion Why this treatment strategy is of potential great importance If our hypothesis is true, HCQ as an aerosol might not only reduce the side effect potential of the oral application form but can also be clinically used as an efficient antiviral agent in the early phase of COVID-19 and eventually lower the rate of severely ill patients and fatalities. This might have great relevance for further prognosis and treatment of this often fatal disease. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://
Baud, Qi, Nielsen-Saines, Musso, Pomar et al., Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection, Lancet Infect Dis
Blignaut, Espach, Van Vuuren, Dhanabalan, Huisamen, Revisiting the Cardiotoxic Effect of Chloroquine, Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
Cao, Wang, Wen, A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Cass, Efthymiopoulos, Bye, Pharmacokinetics of zanamivir after intravenous, oral, inhaled or intranasal administration to healthy volunteers, Clin Pharmacokinet
Chen, Adjunctive Corticosteroid Therapy for Patients with Severe Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19): a Randomized Controlled Trial
Chen, Moriyama, Chang, Ichinohe, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus viroporin 3a activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, Front Microbiol
Colson, Rolain, Lagier, Brouqui, Raoult, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Devaux, Rolain, Colson, Raoult, New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?, Int J Antimicrobial Agents
Dong, Hu, Gao, Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Drug Discover Therapeut
Frisk-Holmberg, Bergkvist, Domeij-Nyberg, Hellström, Jansson, Chloroquine serum concentration and side effects: Evidence for dose-dependent kinetics, Clin Pharmacol Ther
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Bioscience trends
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Gentile, Abenavoli, COVID-19: perspectives on the potential novel global threat, Rev Recent Clinic Trials
Goel, Gerriets, Chloroquine
Good, Shader, Lethality and behavioral side effects of chloroquine, J Clin Psychopharmacol
Hamer, Salzberger, Gebauer, Stroszczynski, Pfeifer, CT morphology of COVID-19: Case report and review of literature
Jia, Look, Shi, ACE2 receptor expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection depend on differentiation of human airway epithelia, J Virol
Kearney, Chloroquine as a Potential Treatment and Prevention Measure for the
Keyaerts, Vijgen, Maes, Neyts, Van Ranst, In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine, Biochem Biophys Res Commun
Lai, Shih, Ko, Tang, Hsueh, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges, Int J Antimicrobial Agents
Lu, Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Biosci Trends
Mclachlan, Tett, Cutler, Day, Bioavalibility of hydroxychlorquine tablets in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology
Novel, The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua liu xing, bing xue za zhi= Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
Pauwels, Löfdahl, Postma, Tattersfield, 'byrne et al., Effect of inhaled formoterol and budesonide on exacerbations of asthma, N Engl J Med
Qiu, Wei, Zhao, Outcome reporting from protocols of clinical trials of Coronavirus Disease
Salome, Schoeffel, Woolcock, Effect of aerosol and oral fenoterol on histamine and methacholine challenge in asthmatic subjects, Thorax
Schwartzman, Samson, Are the Current Recommendations for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Screening Appropriate?, Rheumatic Dis Clinics
Su, Wu, A Multiscale and Comparative Model for Receptor Binding of 2019 Novel Coronavirus and the Implication of its Life Cycle in Host Cells, bioRxiv
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
Zhang, Therapeutic effect of hydroxychloroquine on novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, The Lancet
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop