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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 50% Improvement Relative Risk Progression 37% ICU time 9% Hospitalization time -3% HCQ for COVID-19  Alshamrani et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? PSM retrospective 814 patients in Saudi Arabia (Mar 2020 - Jan 2021) Lower mortality (p=0.18) and progression (p=0.21), not sig. Alshamrani et al., Saudi Pharmaceutica.., Feb 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Comprehensive evaluation of six interventions for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A propensity score matching study

Alshamrani et al., Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2023.02.004
Feb 2023  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
PSM retrospective 29 hospitals in Saudi Arabia, finding lower mortality with HCQ, without reaching statistical significance (described by authors as "no impact").
Study covers convalescent plasma, remdesivir, favipiravir, and HCQ.
risk of death, 50.0% lower, RR 0.50, p = 0.18, treatment 6 of 161 (3.7%), control 50 of 653 (7.7%), NNT 25, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, propensity score matching, multivariable.
risk of progression, 37.0% lower, RR 0.63, p = 0.21, treatment 16 of 161 (9.9%), control 100 of 653 (15.3%), NNT 19, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, AKI, ARDS, multi-organ failure, or mortality, propensity score matching, multivariable.
ICU time, 9.2% lower, relative time 0.91, p = 0.66, treatment 22, control 169, propensity score matching.
hospitalization time, 3.0% higher, relative time 1.03, p = 0.69, treatment 161, control 653, propensity score matching.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alshamrani et al., 15 Feb 2023, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, study period March 2020 - January 2021.
This PaperHCQAll
Comprehensive evaluation of six interventions for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A propensity score matching study
BPharm Ali A Alshamrani, Ahmed M Assiri, Omar A Almohammed
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2023.02.004
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Authors' contributions: OAA designed the study, analyzed the data and revised and edited the manuscript. AAA and AMA contributed to the study design and writing the first draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Almohammed, Pharmd, None
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Late treatment
is less effective
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