Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -7% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Alghamdi et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 775 patients in Saudi Arabia No significant difference in mortality Alghamdi et al., Antibiotics, March 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with COVID-19: Findings from an Observational Comparative Study in Saudi Arabia

Alghamdi et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics10040365
Mar 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 775 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant difference. There was no adjustment for severity or comorbidities. Confounding by indication is likely.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: confounding by indication is likely and adjustments do not consider COVID-19 severity at baseline.
risk of death, 6.9% higher, RR 1.07, p = 0.88, treatment 44 of 568 (7.7%), control 15 of 207 (7.2%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alghamdi et al., 31 Mar 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Clinical Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with COVID-19: Findings from an Observational Comparative Study in Saudi Arabia
Saleh Alghamdi, Bassant Barakat, Ilhem Berrou, Abdulhakim Alzahrani, Abdul Haseeb, Mohamed Anwar Hammad, Sirajudheen Anwar, Abdulmajeed Abdulghani A Sindi, Hussain A Almasmoum, Mohammad Albanghali
Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics10040365
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine-based regimens versus standard treatment in patients with the coronavirus disease admitted in 2019 to a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A comparative observational study, using routine hospital data, was carried out in a large tertiary care hospital in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, providing care to patients with COVID-19 between April 2019 and August 2019. Patients were categorized into two groups: the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, treated with HCQ in a dose of 400 mg twice daily on the first day, followed by 200 mg twice daily; the non HCQ group, treated with other antiviral or antibacterial treatments according to protocols recommended by the Ministry of Health (MOH) at the time. The primary outcomes were the length of hospital stay, need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation. Overall survival was also assessed. 568 patients who received HCQ (treatment group) were compared with 207 patients who did not receive HCQ (control group). HCQ did not improve mortality in the treated group (7.7% vs. 7.2%). There were no significant differences in terms of duration of hospitalization, need for and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation among the groups. Our study provides further evidence that HCQ treatment does not reduce mortality rates, length of hospital stay, admission and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Almaghlouth, Islam, Alamro, Alsultan, Alfadda et al., Mapping COVID-19 related research from Saudi Arabia, a scoping review: Between reality and dreams, Saudi Med. J, doi:10.15537/smj.2020.8.25163
Almazrou, Almalki, Alanazi, Alqahtani, Alghamd, Comparing the impact of Hydroxychloroquine based regimens and standard treatment on COVID-19 patient outcomes: A retrospective cohort study, Saudi Pharm. J, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2020.09.019
Altakarli, Emergence of COVID-19 Infection: What Is Known and What Is to Be Expected-Narrative Review Article, Dubai Med. J, doi:10.1159/000506678
Casadevall, Pirofski, The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19, J. Clin. Investig
Chen, Hu, Zhang, Jiang, Han et al., Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: Results of a randomized clinical trial, MedRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758
Chorin, Dai, Shulman, Wadhwani, Bar-Cohen et al., The QT interval in patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, Nat. Med, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0888-2
Drew, Ackerman, Funk, Gibler, Kligfield et al., Prevention of Torsade de Pointes in Hospital Settings: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.01.001
Elfiky, Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19, Life Sci, doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117477
Esper, Weibel, Ferguson, Landry, Kahn, Evidence of a Novel Human Coronavirus That is Associated with Respiratory Tract Disease in Infants and Young Children, J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1086/428138
Etchegoyen, Keller, Mrad, Cheng, Girolamo, Di Drug-induced QT Interval Prolongation in the Intensive Care Unit, Curr. Clin. Pharmacol, doi:10.2174/1574884713666180223123947
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hoang, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: Results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Geleris, Sun, Platt, Zucker, Baldwin et al., Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med
Grandvuillemin, Fresse, Cholle, Yamani, Dautriche, Adverse drug reactions of hydroxychloroquine: Analysis of French pre-pandemic SARS-CoV2 pharmacovigilance data, Therapie, doi:10.1016/j.therap.2020.05.001
Hancox, Hasnain, Vieweg, Crouse, Baranchuk, Azithromycin, cardiovascular risks, QTc interval prolongation, torsade de pointes, and regulatory issues: A narrative review based on the study of case reports, Ther. Adv. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1177/2049936113501816
Ip, Ahn, Zhou, Goy, Hansen et al., Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of outpatients with mildly symptomatic COVID-19: A multi-center observational study, BMC Infect. Dis, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-05773-w
Juurlink, Safety considerations with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Can. Med. Assoc. J, doi:10.1503/cmaj.200528
Mahevas, Tran, Roumier, Chabrol, Paule et al., Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: Observational comparative study using routine care data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1844
Mcintosh, Dees, Becker, Kapikian, Chanock, Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, doi:10.1073/pnas.57.4.933
Mega, Feyissa, Bosho, Goro, Negera, The Outcome of Hydroxychloroquine in Patients Treated for COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Can. Respir. J, doi:10.1155/2020/4312519
Pak, Adegboye, Adekunle, Rahman, Mcbryde et al., Economic Consequences of the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Need for Epidemic Preparedness, Front. Public Heath, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00241
Pascarella, Strumia, Piliego, Bruno, Del Buono et al., COVID-19 diagnosis and management: A comprehensive review, J. Intern. Med, doi:10.1111/joim.13091
Peiris, Lai, Poon, Guan, Yam et al., Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13077-2
Picot, Marty, Bienvenu, Blumberg, Dupouy-Camet et al., Coalition: Advocacy for prospective clinical trials to test the post-exposure potential of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19, One Health, doi:10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100131
Rosenberg, Dufort, Udo, Wilberschied, Kumar et al., Association of Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin with In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in New York State, J. Am. Med. Assoc, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8630
Sarma, Kaur, Kumar, Mahendru, Avti et al., Virological and clinical cure in COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: A systematic review and meta-analysis, J. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.25898
Shah, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: Perspectives on their failure in repurposing, J. Clin. Pharm. Ther, doi:10.1111/jcpt.13267
Shah, Stonier, Repurposing old drugs in oncology: Opportunities with clinical and regulatory challenges ahead, J. Clin. Pharm. Ther, doi:10.1111/jcpt.12759
Shen, Wang, Zhao, Yang, Li et al., Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 with Convalescent Plasma, J. Am. Med. Assoc, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4783
Stöhr, A multicentre collaboration to investigate the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Lancet
Tripathy, Dassarma, Roy, Chabalala, A review on possible modes of action of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine: Repurposing against SAR-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106028
Zaki, Van Boheemen, Bestebroer, Osterhaus, Fouchier, Isolation of a Novel Coronavirus from a Man with Pneumonia in Saudi Arabia, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1211721
Zumla, Hui, Perlman, Middle East respiratory syndrome, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60454-8
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop