Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Hydroxychloroquine  COVID-19 treatment studies for HCQ  C19 studies: HCQ  HCQ   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -70% Improvement Relative Risk Sands et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,669 patients in the USA Higher mortality with HCQ (p=0.01) Sands et al., Int. J. Infectious Diseases, doi:/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.060 Favors HCQ Favors control
No clinical benefit in mortality associated with hydroxychloroquine treatment in patients with COVID-19
Sands et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.060
Sands et al., No clinical benefit in mortality associated with hydroxychloroquine treatment in patients with COVID-19, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.060
Jan 2021   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Retrospective database analysis of 1,669 patients in the US showing OR 1.81, p = 0.01. Confounding by indication is likely.
COVID-19 was determined via PCR+ results, therefore authors include patients asymptomatic for COVID-19, but in the hospital for other reasons. While authors adjust for severity, the method used is very poor. 93.5% of patients are classified as "mild", which is patients with no documented care in a critical care unit within 8 hours of admission. Therefore almost all patients are in the same category, and those in a different category may be due to symptoms unrelated to COVID-19. Lower bias toward male patients in the control group also agrees with the hypothesis that the control group is made up of more people that were in hospital for another reason.
Since the analysis covers the initial period of the pandemic in the USA, it is likely that HCQ was used more often earlier in the analysis period when treatment protocols were considerably worse. It's unclear why the analysis only considers patients up to April 27, when the manuscript was submitted in October.
For other issues see []. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: includes PCR+ patients that may be asymptomatic for COVID-19 but in hospital for other reasons; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 69.9% higher, RR 1.70, p = 0.01, treatment 101 of 973 (10.4%), control 56 of 696 (8.0%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sands et al., 1 Jan 2021, retrospective, database analysis, USA, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Abstract: International Journal of Infectious Diseases 104 (2021) 34–40 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect International Journal of Infectious Diseases journal homepage: No clinical benefit in mortality associated with hydroxychloroquine treatment in patients with COVID-19 Kenneth Sandsa,* , Richard Wenzelb , Laura McLeana , Kimberly Korweka , Jonathon Roacha , Karla Millera , Russell E. Polanda , L. Hayley Burgessa , Edmund Jacksona , Jonathan B. Perlina a b Clinical Services Group, HCA Healthcare, United States Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, United States A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T Article history: Received 6 October 2020 Received in revised form 18 December 2020 Accepted 19 December 2020 Background: The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), with or without concurrent administration of azithromycin (AZM), for treatment of COVID-19 has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HCQ administration is associated with improved mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected during the care process for COVID-19 positive patients discharged from facilities affiliated with a large healthcare system in the United States as of April 27, 2020. Patients were categorized by treatment with HCQ (in addition to standard supportive therapy) or receipt of supportive therapy with no HCQ. Patient outcomes were evaluated for in-hospital mortality. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were accounted for through a multivariable regression analysis. Results: A total of 1669 patients were evaluated (no HCQ, n = 696; HCQ, n = 973). When adjusting for patient characteristics, receipt of AZM, and severity of disease at admission, there was no beneficial effect of receipt of HCQ on the risk of death. In this population, there was an 81% increase in the risk of mortality among patients who received HCQ at any time during their hospital stay versus no HCQ exposure (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.20–2.77, p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, we found that there was no benefit of administration of HCQ on mortality in COVID-19 patients. These results support recent changes to clinical trials that discourage the use of HCQ in COVID-19 patients. © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Keywords: COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Hydroxychloroquine
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop