Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare workers: a randomized trial

Rajasingham et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1571, COVID PREP, NCT04328467
Sep 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Hospitalization, COVID-19 50% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization, all cause 39% Case, both arms combined 27% primary Case, twice weekly 28% primary Case, once weekly 26% primary HCQ  COVID PREP  Prophylaxis  RCT Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 1,483 patients in the USA (April - July 2020) Trial compares with folic acid, results vs. placebo may differ Fewer cases with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.069) c19hcq.org Rajasingham et al., Clinical Infectiou.., Sep 2020 FavorsHCQ Favorsfolic acid 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
PrEP RCT showing lower cases with HCQ prophylaxis. The trial was halted after 47% enrollment, p < 0.05 would be reached at ~75% enrollment if similar results continued.
HR 0.66/0.68 for full medication adherence, 0.72/0.74, p = 0.18/0.22 overall (1x/2x dosing). Efficacy for first responders was higher, OR 0.32, p = 0.01. First responders had a much higher incidence, allowing greater power, and reducing the effect of confounders such as misdiagnosis of other conditions or survey issues.
Performance is similar to the control arm for the first 3 weeks. The effect may be greater with a dosage regimen that achieves therapeutic levels faster1. ~40% of participants suspected they might have had COVID-19 before the trial, the effect in people without prior COVID-19 may be higher.
Research shows the treatment used in the control arm (folic acid) may have significant efficacy for COVID-192,3, so the true effectiveness of HCQ may be higher than observed. Also see4. Kaur et al. note that folic acid is predicted to bind to multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins, folic acid levels are lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease, folic acid supplementation may help with COVID-19 associated hypertension and hyperhomocystinemia, and differences in a folic acid-related enzyme could impact COVID-19 geographical severity variation.
Authors note that the trial was underpowered, investigation into more frequent dosing may be warranted, and that the dosing may have been insufficient with no participants achieving more than the in vitro EC50.
Internet survey RCT subject to survey bias. There were no deaths or ICU admissions. Low risk healthcare workers, median age ~40. 494 1x/week dosing, 495 2x/week dosing, 494 control participants (1x and 2x participants received the same overall dosage).
risk of hospitalization, 50.1% lower, RR 0.50, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 989 (0.1%), control 1 of 494 (0.2%), NNT 987, COVID-19.
risk of hospitalization, 39.0% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.34, treatment 11 of 989 (1.1%), control 9 of 494 (1.8%), NNT 141, all cause.
risk of case, 27.0% lower, HR 0.73, p = 0.07, treatment 58 of 989 (5.9%), control 39 of 494 (7.9%), NNT 49, adjusted per study, both arms combined, primary outcome.
risk of case, 28.0% lower, HR 0.72, p = 0.18, treatment 29 of 495 (5.9%), control 39 of 494 (7.9%), NNT 49, adjusted per study, twice weekly, primary outcome.
risk of case, 26.0% lower, HR 0.74, p = 0.22, treatment 29 of 494 (5.9%), control 39 of 494 (7.9%), NNT 49, adjusted per study, once weekly, primary outcome.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rajasingham et al., 21 Sep 2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, USA, peer-reviewed, 22 authors, study period 6 April, 2020 - 13 July, 2020, this trial compares with another treatment - results may be better when compared to placebo, trial NCT04328467 (history) (COVID PREP).
This PaperHCQAll
Hydroxychloroquine as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Trial
Radha Rajasingham, Ananta S Bangdiwala, Melanie R Nicol, Caleb P Skipper, Katelyn A Pastick, Margaret L Axelrod, Matthew F Pullen, Alanna A Nascene, Darlisha A Williams, Nicole W Engen, Elizabeth C Okafor, Brian I Rini, Ingrid A Mayer, Emily G Mcdonald, Todd C Lee, Peter Li, Lauren J Mackenzie, Justin M Balko, Stephen J Dunlop, Katherine H Hullsiek, David R Boulware, Sarah M Lofgren, Mahsa Abassi, Andrew Balster, Lindsey B Collins, Glen Drobot, Douglas S Krakower, Sylvain A Lother, Dylan S Mackay, Cameron Meyer-Mueller, Stephen Selinsky, Dayna Solvason, Ryan Zarychanski, Rebecca Zash
Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1571
Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a rapidly emerging virus causing the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with no known effective prophylaxis. We investigated whether hydroxychloroquine could prevent SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers at high risk of exposure. Methods. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of healthcare workers with ongoing exposure to persons with SARS-CoV-2, including those working in emergency departments, intensive care units, COVID-19 hospital wards, and first responders. Participants across the United States and in the Canadian province of Manitoba were randomized to hydroxychloroquine loading dose then 400 mg once or twice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was confirmed or probable COVID-19-compatible illness. We measured hydroxychloroquine whole-blood concentrations. Results. We enrolled 1483 healthcare workers, of whom 79% reported performing aerosol-generating procedures. The incidence of COVID-19 (laboratory-confirmed or symptomatic compatible illness) was 0.27 events/person-year with once-weekly and 0.28 events/person-year with twice-weekly hydroxychloroquine compared with 0.38 events/person-year with placebo. For once-weekly hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis, the hazard ratio was .72 (95% CI, .44-1.16; P = .18) and for twice-weekly was .74 (95% CI, .46-1.19; P = .22) compared with placebo. Median hydroxychloroquine concentrations in whole blood were 98 ng/mL (IQR, 82-120) with onceweekly and 200 ng/mL (IQR, 159-258) with twice-weekly dosing. Hydroxychloroquine concentrations did not differ between participants who developed COVID-19-compatible illness (154 ng/mL) versus participants without COVID-19 (133 ng/mL; P = .08). Conclusions. Pre-exposure prophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine once or twice weekly did not significantly reduce laboratoryconfirmed COVID-19 or COVID-19-compatible illness among healthcare workers. clinical Trials Registration. NCT04328467.
Supplementary Data Supplementary materials are available at Clinical Infectious Diseases online. Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit the reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author. Notes
References
Abella, Jolkovsky, Biney, Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo for pre-exposure SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis among health care workers: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA Intern Med, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6319
Al-Kofahi, Jacobson, Boulware, Finding the dose for hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19: the desperate search for effectiveness, Clin Pharmacol Ther, doi:10.1002/cpt.1874
Borba, Val, Sampaio, Effect of high vs low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA Netw Open
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Fan, Zhang, Liu, Connecting hydroxychloroquine in vitro antiviral activity to in vivo concentration for prediction of antiviral effect: a critical step in treating COVID-19 patients, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa623
Harris, Taylor, Minor, The REDCap consortium: building an international community of software platform partners, J Biomed Inform
Kucirka, Lauer, Laeyendecker, Boon, Lessler, Variation in falsenegative rate of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based SARS-CoV-2 tests by time since exposure, Ann Intern Med
Lancet, Expression of concern: hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis, Lancet
Lim, Im, Cho, Pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine and its clinical implications in chemoprophylaxis against malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19, doi:10.1016/j.medj.2020.06.001
Maisonnasse, Guedj, Contreras, Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2558-4
Prevention, Interim, for healthcare personnel with potential exposure to COVID-19
Qu, Brady, Apilado, Capillary blood collected on volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) device for monitoring hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis patients, J Pharm Biomed Anal
Rathi, Ish, Kalantri, Kalantri, Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19 contacts in India, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30313-3
Skipper, Pastick, Engen, Hydroxychloroquine in nonhospitalized adults with early COVID-19: a randomized trial, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M20-4207
Tett, Cutler, Day, Brown, A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics of hydroxy-chloroquine following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers, Br J Clin Pharmacol
The, Group, Effect of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2022926
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol J
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 5, 28]], 'date-time': '2024-05-28T01:33:02Z', 'timestamp': 1716859982481}, 'reference-count': 25, 'publisher': 'Oxford University Press (OUP)', 'issue': '11', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 17]], 'date-time': '2020-10-17T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1602892800000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model'}], 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000060', 'name': 'National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['K08AI134262', 'K23AI138851', 'T32AI055433']}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000025', 'name': 'National Institute of Mental Health', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['K23MH121220']}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000061', 'name': 'Fogarty International Center', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['D43TW009345']}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000065', 'name': 'National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['D43TW009345']}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000862', 'name': 'Doris Duke Charitable Foundation', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000002', 'name': 'National Institutes of Health', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['T32GM007347', 'F30CA236157']}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100000156', 'name': 'Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Santé', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100008795', 'name': 'Manitoba Medical Service Foundation', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}, {'DOI': '10.13039/100008794', 'name': 'Research Manitoba', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100006108', 'name': 'National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['UL1TR002494']}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 1]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Background</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a ' 'rapidly emerging virus causing the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with ' 'no known effective prophylaxis. We investigated whether hydroxychloroquine could prevent ' 'SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers at high risk of exposure.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ' 'clinical trial of healthcare workers with ongoing exposure to persons with SARS-CoV-2, ' 'including those working in emergency departments, intensive care units, COVID-19 hospital ' 'wards, and first responders. Participants across the United States and in the Canadian ' 'province of Manitoba were randomized to hydroxychloroquine loading dose then 400 mg once or ' 'twice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was confirmed or probable COVID-19–compatible ' 'illness. We measured hydroxychloroquine whole-blood concentrations.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>We enrolled 1483 healthcare workers, of whom 79% reported ' 'performing aerosol-generating procedures. The incidence of COVID-19 (laboratory-confirmed or ' 'symptomatic compatible illness) was 0.27 events/person-year with once-weekly and 0.28 ' 'events/person-year with twice-weekly hydroxychloroquine compared with 0.38 events/person-year ' 'with placebo. For once-weekly hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis, the hazard ratio was .72 (95% ' 'CI, .44–1.16; P = .18) and for twice-weekly was .74 (95% CI, .46–1.19; P = .22) compared with ' 'placebo. Median hydroxychloroquine concentrations in whole blood were 98 ng/mL (IQR, 82–120) ' 'with once-weekly and 200 ng/mL (IQR, 159–258) with twice-weekly dosing. Hydroxychloroquine ' 'concentrations did not differ between participants who developed COVID-19–compatible illness ' '(154 ng/mL) versus participants without COVID-19 (133 ng/mL; P = .08).</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Pre-exposure prophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine once or twice ' 'weekly did not significantly reduce laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or COVID-19–compatible ' 'illness among healthcare workers.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Clinical Trials Registration</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04328467.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa1571', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 13]], 'date-time': '2020-10-13T19:29:39Z', 'timestamp': 1602617379000}, 'page': 'e835-e843', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 68, 'title': 'Hydroxychloroquine as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in ' 'Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Trial', 'prefix': '10.1093', 'volume': '72', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5531-0231', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Radha', 'family': 'Rajasingham', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Ananta S', 'family': 'Bangdiwala', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Melanie R', 'family': 'Nicol', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Caleb P', 'family': 'Skipper', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1306-1713', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Katelyn A', 'family': 'Pastick', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Margaret L', 'family': 'Axelrod', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Matthew F', 'family': 'Pullen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Alanna A', 'family': 'Nascene', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Darlisha A', 'family': 'Williams', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Nicole W', 'family': 'Engen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Elizabeth C', 'family': 'Okafor', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Brian I', 'family': 'Rini', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Ingrid A', 'family': 'Mayer', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Emily G', 'family': 'McDonald', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and ' 'the Clinical Practice Assessment Unit, Department of Medicine, ' 'McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada'}]}, { 'given': 'Todd C', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and ' 'the Clinical Practice Assessment Unit, Department of Medicine, ' 'McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada'}]}, { 'given': 'Peter', 'family': 'Li', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Lauren J', 'family': 'MacKenzie', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, ' 'University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada'}]}, { 'given': 'Justin M', 'family': 'Balko', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Stephen J', 'family': 'Dunlop', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ {'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}, {'name': 'Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Katherine H', 'family': 'Hullsiek', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'David R', 'family': 'Boulware', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'Sarah M', 'family': 'Lofgren', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA'}]}, {'given': 'Mahsa', 'family': 'Abassi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Andrew', 'family': 'Balster', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Lindsey B', 'family': 'Collins', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Glen', 'family': 'Drobot', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Douglas S', 'family': 'Krakower', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Sylvain A', 'family': 'Lother', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Dylan S', 'family': 'MacKay', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Cameron', 'family': 'Meyer-Mueller', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Stephen', 'family': 'Selinsky', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Dayna', 'family': 'Solvason', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ryan', 'family': 'Zarychanski', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Rebecca', 'family': 'Zash', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'name': 'COVID PREP team', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '286', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 17]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0001', 'author': 'National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) Division of ' 'Viral Diseases'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0002', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo for pre-exposure ' 'SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis among health care workers: a randomized clinical ' 'trial', 'author': 'Abella', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern Me'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0003', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '69', 'DOI': '10.1186/1743-422X-2-69', 'article-title': 'Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and ' 'spread', 'volume': '2', 'author': 'Vincent', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'Virol J'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0004', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '269', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged ' 'novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell Res'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '16', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is ' 'effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Liu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell Discov'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0006', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '732', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Yao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0007', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '517', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2016638', 'article-title': 'A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis ' 'for Covid-19', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Boulware', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0008', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '623', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-4207', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in nonhospitalized adults with early COVID-19: a ' 'randomized trial', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Skipper', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0009', 'article-title': 'The RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Effect of hydroxychloroquine in ' 'hospitalized patients with COVID-19', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, {'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0010', 'author': 'World Health Organization'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0011', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1118', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30313-3', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19 contacts in India', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Rathi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0012', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '103208', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103208', 'article-title': 'The REDCap consortium: building an international community of software ' 'platform partners', 'volume': '95', 'author': 'Harris', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'J Biomed Inform'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0013', 'volume-title': 'Interim-20-ID-01: standardized surveillance case definition and national ' 'notification for 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)', 'author': 'Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0014', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '334', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jpba.2017.03.047', 'article-title': 'Capillary blood collected on volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) ' 'device for monitoring hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis ' 'patients', 'volume': '140', 'author': 'Qu', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'J Pharm Biomed Anal'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '584', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-020-2558-4', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human ' 'primates', 'volume': '585', 'author': 'Maisonnasse', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Nature'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0016', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '766', 'DOI': '10.1002/cpt.1874', 'article-title': 'Finding the dose for hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19: the ' 'desperate search for effectiveness', 'volume': '108', 'author': 'Al-Kofahi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Pharmacol Ther'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '303', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2125.1988.tb05281.x', 'article-title': 'A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics of hydroxy-chloroquine ' 'following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers', 'volume': '26', 'author': 'Tett', 'year': '1988', 'journal-title': 'Br J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0018', 'article-title': 'Connecting hydroxychloroquine in vitro antiviral activity to in vivo ' 'concentration for prediction of antiviral effect: a critical step in ' 'treating COVID-19 patients', 'author': 'Fan', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis [Preprint] May 21, 2020'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0019', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1468', 'DOI': '10.1128/AAC.00339-08', 'article-title': 'Pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine and its clinical implications in ' 'chemoprophylaxis against malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax', 'volume': '53', 'author': 'Lim', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Antimicrob Agents Chemother'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e208857', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857', 'article-title': 'Effect of high vs low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive ' 'therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a randomized clinical ' 'trial', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Borba', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0021', 'article-title': 'Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans ' 'hospitalized with Covid-19', 'author': 'Magagnoli', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv [Preprint] June 5, 2020'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0022', 'volume-title': 'FDA cautions against use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for ' 'COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial due to risk ' 'of heart rhythm problems', 'author': 'US Food and Drug Administration'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0023', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e102', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31290-3', 'article-title': 'Expression of concern: hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or ' 'without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry ' 'analysis', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'The Lancet Editors', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0024', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '262', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-1495', 'article-title': 'Variation in false-negative rate of reverse transcriptase polymerase ' 'chain reaction-based SARS-CoV-2 tests by time since exposure', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Kucirka', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '2021072004485112800_CIT0025', 'volume-title': 'Interim U.S. guidance for risk assessment and work restrictions for ' 'healthcare personnel with potential exposure to COVID-19', 'author': 'Centers for Disease Control and Prevention'}], 'container-title': 'Clinical Infectious Diseases', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1571/35001898/ciaa1571.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'am', 'intended-application': 'syndication'}, { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/cid/article-pdf/72/11/e835/39120364/ciaa1571.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'syndication'}, { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/cid/article-pdf/72/11/e835/39120364/ciaa1571.pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 7, 20]], 'date-time': '2021-07-20T04:49:32Z', 'timestamp': 1626756572000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/72/11/e835/5929230'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 17]]}, 'references-count': 25, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': '11', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 17]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 1]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1571', 'relation': { 'has-preprint': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.1101/2020.09.18.20197327', 'asserted-by': 'object'}]}, 'ISSN': ['1058-4838', '1537-6591'], 'subject': [], 'published-other': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 1]]}, 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 17]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit