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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 47% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Ferreira et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 26,815 patients in Portugal Fewer cases with HCQ (p=0.000054) Ferreira et al., J. Medical Virology, .., Jun 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ferreira et al., J. Medical Virology, July 9, 2020, doi:10.1002/jmv.26286 (date from preprint)
Jun 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Chronic treatment with HCQ provides protection against COVID, odds ratio 0.51 (0.37-0.70).
The actual benefit is likely to be larger becasue research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall. Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.001 Ferri, which is the observed real-world risk, taking into account factors such as these patients potentially being more careful to avoid exposure.
risk of case, 47.1% lower, RR 0.53, p < 0.001, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ferreira et al., 29 Jun 2020, retrospective, population-based cohort, database analysis, Portugal, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS‐CoV‐2 infection
MD António Ferreira, António Oliveira‐e‐silva, MD Paulo Bettencourt
Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26286
The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Portugal was recorded on 2 March 2020. Since then, until the moment we analyzed the data, 360 304 patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection had a final case definition (positive PCR test or negative PCR test). In 248 cases the PCR test result was inconclusive and had not yet been repeated at the time of data extraction. Of these 360 304 cases, 26 815 were confirmed by a positive PCR test. The rest had negative PCR tests.
| FERREIRA ET AL. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests.
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Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
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Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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