Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ferreira et al., J. Medical Virology, July 9, 2020, doi:10.1002/jmv.26286 (date from preprint)
Jun 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Case 47% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Ferreira et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 26,815 patients in Portugal Fewer cases with HCQ (p=0.000054) Ferreira et al., J. Medical Virology, .., Jun 2020 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
Chronic treatment with HCQ provides protection against COVID, odds ratio 0.51 (0.37-0.70).
The actual benefit is likely to be larger becasue research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall. Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.0011, which is the observed real-world risk, taking into account factors such as these patients potentially being more careful to avoid exposure.
risk of case, 47.1% lower, RR 0.53, p < 0.001, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ferreira et al., 29 Jun 2020, retrospective, population-based cohort, database analysis, Portugal, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS‐CoV‐2 infection
MD António Ferreira, António Oliveira‐e‐silva, MD Paulo Bettencourt
Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26286
The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Portugal was recorded on 2 March 2020. Since then, until the moment we analyzed the data, 360 304 patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection had a final case definition (positive PCR test or negative PCR test). In 248 cases the PCR test result was inconclusive and had not yet been repeated at the time of data extraction. Of these 360 304 cases, 26 815 were confirmed by a positive PCR test. The rest had negative PCR tests.
| FERREIRA ET AL. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests.
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for COVID-19
Bouza, Moya, Muñoz, Infections in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, Infect Dis Clin North Am
Branco, Canhão, Epidemiological study of rheumatic diseases in Portugal-EpiReumaPt, Acta Reumatol Port
Chatterjee, Anand, Singh, Healthcare workers & SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: a case-control investigation in the time of COVID-19, Indian J Med Res
Chen, Hu, Zhang, Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758
Choo, Cher, Kwan, Fong, Risk factors for cytomegalovirus disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a systematic review, Adv Rheumatol
Costedoat-Chalumeau, Dunogué, Leroux, A critical review of the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on the eye, Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
Fanouriakis, Kostopoulou, Alunno, update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus, Ann Rheum Dis
Ferreira, None
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label nonrandomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Geleris, Sun, Platt, Observational study of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2012410
Gendelman, Amital, Bragazzi, Watad, Chodick, Continuous hydroxychloroquine or colchicine therapy does not prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2: insights from a large healthcare database analysis, Autoimmun Rev, doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102566
Haładyj, Sikora, Felis-Giemza, Olesińska, Antimalarials-are they effective and safe in rheumatic diseases?, Reumatologia
Herrinton, Liu, Goldfien, Michaels, Tran, Risk of serious infection for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus starting glucocorticoids with or without antimalarials, J Rheumatol
Iliopoulos, Tsokos, Immunopathogenesis and spectrum of infections in systemic lupus erythematosus, Semin Arthritis Rheum
Kim, Feldman, Moscicki, Risk of human papillomavirus infection in women with rheumatic disease: cervical cancer screening and prevention, Rheumatology
Li, Lai, Wang, Risk of severe herpes simplex virus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of epidemiology and risk factors analysis in Taiwan, Ann Rheum Dis
Listing, Gerhold, Zink, The risk of infections associated with rheumatoid arthritis, with its comorbidity and treatment, Rheumatology
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Liu, Li, Zhang, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Drug Des Devel Ther
Ruil-Irastorga, Olivares, Ruiz-Arruza, Martinez-Berriotxoa, Egurbide et al., Predictors of major infections in systemic lupus erythematous, Arthritis Res Ther, doi:10.1186/ar2764
Tripathy, Dassarma, Chabalala, Matsabisa, Ferreira et al., A review on possible modes of action of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine: repurposing against SAR-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2024-04-05T00:55:10Z', 'timestamp': 1712278510868}, 'reference-count': 25, 'publisher': 'Wiley', 'issue': '2', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 7, 27]], 'date-time': '2020-07-27T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1595808000000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [''], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) is being ' 'scrutinized for repositioning in the treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infection. This antimalarial drug is also chronically ' 'used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases. By analyzing the Portuguese anonymized data ' 'on private and public based medical prescriptions we have identified all cases chronically ' 'receiving HCQ for the management of diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, ' 'rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we have detected all ' 'laboratory confirmed cases of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and all laboratory confirmed negative ' 'cases in the Portuguese population (mandatorily registered in a centrally managed database). ' 'Cross linking the two sets of data has allowed us to compare the proportion of HCQ chronic ' 'treatment (at least 2 grams per month) in laboratory confirmed cases of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection ' 'with laboratory confirmed negative cases. Out of 26\u2009815 SARS‐CoV‐2 positive patients, 77 ' '(0.29%) were chronically treated with HCQ, while 1215 (0.36%) out of 333\u2009489 negative ' 'patients were receiving it chronically (<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\u2009=\u2009.04). After ' 'adjustment for age, sex, and chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or ' 'immunosuppressants, the odds ratio of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection for chronic treatment with HCQ has ' 'been 0.51 (0.37‐0.70). Our data suggest that chronic treatment with HCQ confer protection ' 'against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26286', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 7, 9]], 'date-time': '2020-07-09T15:32:46Z', 'timestamp': 1594308766000}, 'page': '755-759', 'update-policy': '', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 22, 'title': 'Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS‐CoV‐2 infection', 'prefix': '10.1002', 'volume': '93', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'António', 'family': 'Ferreira', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Unidade de Investigação Cardiovascular (UniC), Faculdade de ' 'Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Hospital Rainha Santa Isabel ' 'Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João Porto Portugal'}]}, { 'given': 'António', 'family': 'Oliveira‐e‐Silva', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital de Braga Braga Portugal'}]}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Paulo', 'family': 'Bettencourt', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Unidade de Investigação Cardiovascular (UniC), Faculdade de ' 'Medicina Universidade do Porto, Hospital CUF Porto Portugal'}]}], 'member': '311', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 7, 27]]}, 'reference': [ {'key': 'e_1_2_7_2_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_3_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_4_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_5_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.5582/bst.2020.01047'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_6_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_7_1', 'first-page': '20040758', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID‐19: results of a ' 'randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Chen Z', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_8_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2012410'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_9_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214844'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_10_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/s42358-019-0055-y'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_11_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/rheumatology/kex523'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_12_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3899/jrheum.150671'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_13_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/ar2764'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_14_1', 'first-page': '203', 'article-title': 'Epidemiological study of rheumatic diseases in Portugal—EpiReumaPt', 'volume': '36', 'author': 'Branco JC', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'Acta Reumatol Port'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_15_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0049-0172(96)80018-7'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_16_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/rheumatology/kes305'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_17_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0891-5520(05)70149-5'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_18_1', 'unstructured': ''}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_19_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102566'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_20_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2234_20'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_21_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2016638'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_22_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215089'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_23_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.5114/reum.2018.76904'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_24_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2147/DDDT.S166893'}, {'key': 'e_1_2_7_25_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12016-015-8469-8'}, { 'key': 'e_1_2_7_26_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106028'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Medical Virology', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'application/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 9, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-09-01T14:22:43Z', 'timestamp': 1693578163000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 7, 27]]}, 'references-count': 25, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1002/jmv.26286'], 'URL': '', 'relation': { 'has-preprint': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.1101/2020.06.26.20056507', 'asserted-by': 'object'}]}, 'ISSN': ['0146-6615', '1096-9071'], 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases', 'Virology'], 'container-title-short': 'Journal of Medical Virology', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 7, 27]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '2020-06-30', 'order': 0, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2020-07-06', 'order': 1, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2020-07-27', 'order': 2, 'name': 'published', 'label': 'Published', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}]}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop