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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Ventilation -112% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission -53% Hospitalization time -17% HCQ for COVID-19  Babayigit et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,472 patients in Turkey (March - July 2020) Higher ventilation (p=0.21) and ICU admission (p=0.33), not sig. Babayigit et al., Frontiers in Medicine, Aug 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

The association of antiviral drugs with COVID-19 morbidity: The retrospective analysis of a nationwide COVID-19 cohort

Babayigit et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.894126
Aug 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 1,472 hospitalized patients in Turkey, showing a higher risk of ICU admission and ventilation with HCQ, without statistical significance.
Study covers HCQ and favipiravir.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 112.4% higher, RR 2.12, p = 0.21, treatment 63 of 1,378 (4.6%), control 6 of 94 (6.4%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
risk of ICU admission, 52.8% higher, RR 1.53, p = 0.33, treatment 107 of 1,363 (7.9%), control 9 of 93 (9.7%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
hospitalization time, 16.7% higher, relative time 1.17, p = 0.05, treatment 852, control 63.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Babayigit et al., 31 Aug 2022, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, mean age 51.9, 68 authors, study period 11 March, 2020 - 18 July, 2020. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
The association of antiviral drugs with COVID-19 morbidity: The retrospective analysis of a nationwide COVID-19 cohort
Cenk Babayigit, Nurdan Kokturk, Seval Kul, Pelin Duru Cetinkaya, Sibel Atis Nayci, Serap Argun Baris, Oguz Karcioglu, Pinar Aysert, Ilim Irmak, Aycan Akbas Yuksel, Yonca Sekibag, Oya Baydar Toprak, Emel Azak, Sait Mulamahmutoglu, Caglar Cuhadaroglu, Aslihan Demirel, Bugra Kerget, Burcu Baran Ketencioglu, Hasan Selcuk Ozger, Gulcihan Ozkan, Zeynep Ture, Begum Ergan, Vildan Avkan Oguz, Oguz Kilinc, Merve Ercelik, Tansu Ulukavak Ciftci, Ozlem Alici, Esra Nurlu Temel, Ozlem Ataoglu, Asena Aydin, Dilek Cetiner Bahcetepe, Yusuf Taha Gullu, Fusun Fakili, Figen Deveci, Neslihan Kose, Muge Meltem Tor, Gulsah Gunluoglu, Sedat Altin, Teyfik Turgut, Tibel Tuna, Onder Ozturk, Oner Dikensoy, Pinar Yildiz Gulhan, Ilknur Basyigit, Hasim Boyaci, Ipek Kivilcim Oguzulgen, Sermin Borekci, Bilun Gemicioglu, Firat Bayraktar, Osman Elbek, Ismail Hanta, Hacer Kuzu Okur, Gulseren Sagcan, Oguz Uzun, Metin Akgun, Goksel Altinisik, Berna Dursun, Ebru Cakir Edis, Erkmen Gulhan, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu, Okkes Gultekin, Yavuz Havlucu, Metin Ozkan, Aysin Sakar Coskun, Abdullah Sayiner, A Fuat Kalyoncu, Oya Itil, Hasan Bayram
Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.894126
Furthermore, favipiravir was associated with increased risks of ICU admission (OR [95% CI]: 3.02 [1.70-5.35]; p = 0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement (OR [95% CI]: 2.94 [1.28-6.75]; p = 0.011). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that antiviral drugs including lopinavir, ritonavir, and favipiravir were associated with negative clinical outcomes such as increased risks for lengthy hospital stay, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement. Therefore, repurposing such agents without proven clinical evidence might not be the best approach for COVID-19 treatment.
Ethics statement The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Board of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey (356/22.05.2020). Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. Author contributions CB, NKk, HBa, OI, FO, AS, ASC, BD, and AK designed the study. CB, NKk, PC, SAB, OKa, PA, II, AAk, YS, OB, EA, SM, CC, AD, BK, BB, HO, GO, ZT, BE, VA, OKi, ME, TU, OAl, EN, OAt, AAy, DC, YG, FF, FD, NKs, MT, GG, SA, TeT, TiT, OO, OD, PY, IB, HBo, IO, SB, BG, FB, OE, IH, HK, GS, OU, MA, GA, BD, EC, EG, OG, YH, MO, and ASC collected the data. SK and SAN analyzed the data. CB, NKk, SK, and HBa searched the literature and wrote the manuscript. CB, NKk, SK, SAB, PC, and HBa edited and revised manuscript according to journal's instructions. CB, NKk, SK, PC, SAB, and HBa edited and controlled the final version of the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The reviewer BH declared a shared affiliation with the authors, II and AK to the handling editor at the time of review. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of..
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Late treatment
is less effective
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