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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -39% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Alghamdi et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 171 patients in Saudi Arabia Higher mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.52) Alghamdi et al., Saudi Pharmaceutical J., Aug 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A single centre study

Alghamdi et al., Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2021.08.008
Aug 2021  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 171 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant difference for HCQ treatment in unadjusted results.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details; very late stage, ICU patients.
risk of death, 39.2% higher, RR 1.39, p = 0.52, treatment 29 of 128 (22.7%), control 7 of 43 (16.3%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alghamdi et al., 4 Aug 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
This PaperHCQAll
Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A single centre study
Saleh Alghamdi
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2021.08.008
Background: There is limited information describing the presenting features and treatment outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To investigates the clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, radiological, vital signs and treatment characteristics/outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Albaha region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 01 April 2020 to 31 August 2020 involving files review of 171 patients admitted to the ICU of a COVID-19 treatment centre as a result of severe symptoms. Results: Around a third of the ICU patients admitted were over 66 years of age, 59.6% males, 45% diabetics, 39% hypertensive, 25.7% smokers. Patients had symptoms such as 79% fever, 78% cough, 75% headache, 59% sore throat, 57% runny nose, and 75% cough. More than half of the patients had <90% oxygen saturation. Bilateral infiltration was present in about 43% of patients. 85.4% lymphopenia, and 70.8% D-dimer (>0.5 u/ml) were the most significant laboratory results. The median stay in the hospital ranged from 4 to 15.6 days, and the ICU time ranged from 4 to 12.7 days. Approximately 29% of patients received antiviral, antimalarial, and antibiotic treatment, while 27.5% of patients received antibiotics and antimalarial therapy alone. Incorporating hydroxychloroquine in treatment protocols did not improve patients' outcomes. Conclusions: Older age and cardio-metabolic comorbidities increase the risks of sever COVID-19. Different treatment protocols fail to improve mortality rates and urgent efforts are required to prevent the disease and reduce its severity.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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