Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -39% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Alghamdi et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 171 patients in Saudi Arabia Higher mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.52) Alghamdi et al., Saudi Pharmaceutical J., Aug 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A single centre study

Alghamdi et al., Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2021.08.008
Aug 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 171 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant difference for HCQ treatment in unadjusted results. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details; very late stage, ICU patients.
risk of death, 39.2% higher, RR 1.39, p = 0.52, treatment 29 of 128 (22.7%), control 7 of 43 (16.3%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alghamdi et al., 4 Aug 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A single centre study
Saleh Alghamdi
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2021.08.008
Background: There is limited information describing the presenting features and treatment outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia. Objective: To investigates the clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, radiological, vital signs and treatment characteristics/outcomes of severe (ICU) COVID-19 patients in Albaha region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 01 April 2020 to 31 August 2020 involving files review of 171 patients admitted to the ICU of a COVID-19 treatment centre as a result of severe symptoms. Results: Around a third of the ICU patients admitted were over 66 years of age, 59.6% males, 45% diabetics, 39% hypertensive, 25.7% smokers. Patients had symptoms such as 79% fever, 78% cough, 75% headache, 59% sore throat, 57% runny nose, and 75% cough. More than half of the patients had <90% oxygen saturation. Bilateral infiltration was present in about 43% of patients. 85.4% lymphopenia, and 70.8% D-dimer (>0.5 u/ml) were the most significant laboratory results. The median stay in the hospital ranged from 4 to 15.6 days, and the ICU time ranged from 4 to 12.7 days. Approximately 29% of patients received antiviral, antimalarial, and antibiotic treatment, while 27.5% of patients received antibiotics and antimalarial therapy alone. Incorporating hydroxychloroquine in treatment protocols did not improve patients' outcomes. Conclusions: Older age and cardio-metabolic comorbidities increase the risks of sever COVID-19. Different treatment protocols fail to improve mortality rates and urgent efforts are required to prevent the disease and reduce its severity.
Alghamdi, Barakat, Berrou, Alzahrani, Haseeb et al., Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: Findings from an observational comparative study in Saudi Arabia, Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics10040365
Alharthy, Aletreby, Faqihi, Balhamar, Alaklobi et al., Clinical characteristics and predictors of 28-day mortality in 352 critically ill patients with COVID-19: A retrospective study, J. Epidemiol. Glob. Health, doi:10.2991/JEGH.K.200928.001
Alhumaid, Al Mutair, Al Alawi, Al Salman, Al Dossary et al., Clinical features and prognostic factors of intensive and non-intensive 1014 COVID-19 patients: an experience cohort from Alahsa, Saudi Arabia, Eur. J. Med. Res, doi:10.1186/s40001-021-00517-7
Alsofayan, Althunayyan, Khan, Hakawi, Assiri, Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A national retrospective study, J. Infect. Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.026
Alwafi, Naser, Qanash, Brinji, Ghazawi et al., Predictors of length of hospital stay, mortality, and outcomes among hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study, J. Multidiscip. Healthc, doi:10.2147/JMDH.S304788
Alyami, Naser, Orabi, Alwafi, Alyami, Epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Ecological Study, Front. Public Heal, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00506
Arentz, Yim, Klaff, Lokhandwala, Riedo et al., Characteristics and Outcomes of 21 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 in Washington State, J. Am. Med. Assoc, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4326
Auwaerter, Coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
Barry, Althabit, Akkielah, Almohaya, Alotaibi et al., Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a MERS-CoV referral hospital during the peak of the pandemic, Int. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.058
Bhimraj, Morgan, Shumaker, Lavergne, Baden et al., Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Treatment and Management of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Clin. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa478
Briguglio, Crespi, Pino, Mazzocchi, Porta et al., Clinical Characteristics of Severe COVID-19 Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit in Lombardy During the Italian Pandemic, doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.582896
Caliskan, Saylan, Smoking and comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality in 565 patients treated in Turkey: A retrospective observational study, Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.66.12.1679
Casas-Rojo, Anton-Santos, Millan-Nunez-Cortes, Lumbreras-Bermejo, Ramos-Rincon et al., Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain : results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry, doi:10.1016/j.rceng.2020.07.003
Chedid, Waked, Haddad, Chetata, Saliba et al., Antibiotics in treatment of COVID-19 complications: a review of frequency, indications, and efficacy, J. Infect. Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.001
Chen, Wu, Chen, Yan, Yang et al., Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: Retrospective study, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1091
Diamond, Feliciano, Sanghavi, Mahapatra, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. StatPearls [Internet
Gadhiya, Hansrivijit, Gangireddy, Goldman, Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: A single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state, BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549
Guo, Fan, Chen, Wu, Zhang et al., Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), JAMA Cardiol, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017
Gülsen, Yigitbas, Uslu, Drömann, Kilinc, The Effect of Smoking on COVID-19 Symptom Severity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Pulm. Med, doi:10.1155/2020/7590207
Hammad, Abdo, Mashaly, Syed Sulaiman, Alghamdi et al., The statins effects on HbA1c control among diabetic patients: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and clinical trials, Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.005
Hammad, Sulaiman, Aziz, Noor, Prescribing statins among patients with type 2 diabetes: The clinical gap between the guidelines and practice, J. Res. Med. Sci, doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_100_18
Hammad, Syed Sulaiman, Alghamdi, Mangi, Aziz et al., Statins-related peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients, Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.005
Hammad, Tangiisuran, Kharshid, Abdul-Aziz, Hassan et al., Drug-drug Interaction-related Uncontrolled Glycemia, J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci, doi:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_26_17
Hopkins, None
Jacobi, Chung, Bernheim, Eber, Portable chest X-ray in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): A pictorial review, Clin. Imaging, doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.04.001
Jomah, Asdaq, Al-Yamani, Clinical efficacy of antivirals against novel coronavirus (COVID-19): A review, J. Infect. Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.013
Kermali, Khalsa, Pillai, Ismail, Harky, The role of biomarkers in diagnosis of COVID-19 -A systematic review, Life Sci, doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117788
Mangi, Hammad, Khan, Arain, Shahzad et al., Evaluation of the geriatric patients prescription for inappropriate medications frequency at Larkana Sindh Hospital in Pakistan, Clin. Epidemiol. Glob. Heal, doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2020.06.001
Mardani, Vasmehjani, Zali, Gholami, Mousavi Nasab et al., Laboratory Parameters in Detection of COVID-19 Patients with Positive RT-PCR; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study, Arch. Acad. Emerg. Med, doi:10.22037/aaem.v8i1.632
Monard, Textoris, Rimmele, Montini, Lejour et al., Clinical characteristics and day-90 outcomes of 4244 critically ill adults with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study, Intensive Care Med, doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06294-x
Patanavanich, Glantz, Smoking is associated with COVID-19 progression: A meta-analysis, Nicotine Tob. Res, doi:10.1093/ntr/ntaa082
Peckham, De Gruijter, Raine, Radziszewska, Ciurtin et al., Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission, Nat. Commun, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19741-6
Rawshani, Kjölhede, Rawshani, Sattar, Eeg-Olofsson et al., Severe COVID-19 in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Sweden: A nationwide retrospective cohort study, Lancet Reg. Heal. -Eur, doi:10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100105
Rees, Nightingale, Jafari, Waterlow, Clifford et al., COVID-19 length of hospital stay: A systematic review and data synthesis, BMC Med, doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01726-3
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Crawford, Mcginn et al., Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes among 5700 Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City Area, JAMA -J. Am. Med. Assoc, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775
Rousan, Elobeid, Karrar, Khader, Chest x-ray findings and temporal lung changes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, BMC Pulm. Med, doi:10.1186/s12890-020-01286-5
Schmidt, Hajage, Demoule, Pham, Combes et al., None
Shabrawishi, Al-Gethamy, Naser, Ghazawi, Alsharif et al., Clinical, radiological and therapeutic characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237130
Thomson, Hunter, Dutton, Schneider, Khosravi et al., Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit in London: A prospective observational cohort study, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243710
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Bacon, Bates et al., linked electronic health records of 17 million adult NHS patients, doi:10.1101/2020.05.06.20092999
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop