Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 18% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) -9% ICU admission -9% ICU admission (b) -71% HCQ for COVID-19  Albani et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 816 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.15) c19hcq.org Albani et al., J, Clinical Medicine, Aug 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Impact of Azithromycin and/or Hydroxychloroquine on Hospital Mortality in COVID-19

Albani et al., J, Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm9092800
Aug 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 1376 hospitalized patients in Italy, 211 treated with HCQ and 166 with HCQ+AZ.
Although the 18% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 24% lower mortality [20‑29%] from meta analysis of the 249 mortality results to date.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely; substantial confounding by time likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
risk of death, 18.4% lower, RR 0.82, p = 0.15, treatment 60 of 211 (28.4%), control 172 of 605 (28.4%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ vs. neither.
risk of death, 9.0% higher, RR 1.09, p = 0.54, treatment 60 of 211 (28.4%), control 172 of 605 (28.4%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ+AZ vs. neither.
risk of ICU admission, 9.2% higher, RR 1.09, p = 0.70, treatment 73 of 211 (34.6%), control 46 of 605 (7.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ vs. neither.
risk of ICU admission, 71.3% higher, RR 1.71, p < 0.001, treatment 73 of 211 (34.6%), control 46 of 605 (7.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ+AZ vs. neither.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Albani et al., 30 Aug 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Impact of Azithromycin and/or Hydroxychloroquine on Hospital Mortality in COVID-19
Filippo Albani, Federica Fusina, Alessia Giovannini, Pierluigi Ferretti, Anna Granato, Chiara Prezioso, Danilo Divizia, Alessandra Sabaini, Marco Marri, Elena Malpetti, Giuseppe Natalini
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm9092800
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to widespread use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin despite the lack of conclusive evidence for their safety and efficacy. We evaluated the association between treatment with hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin and hospital mortality as the primary outcome. We compared the hospital mortality of patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or their combination to the mortality of patients who received neither drug. A logistic multivariate model with overlap weight propensity score was used for estimation of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). One thousand four hundred and three patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to the hospital. At the time of the analysis, the outcome was available for 1376 (98%) of them. Five hundred and eighty-seven patients (42%) received azithromycin and 377 patients (27%) received hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination. In-hospital mortality was 26%. After the adjusted analysis, azithromycin alone was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.85) compared to no treatment. Hydroxychloroquine alone (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-1.08) and the combination of azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77-1.69) were not associated with hospital mortality. In this cohort of patients, azithromycin alone was associated with lower hospital mortality but hydroxychloroquine was not associated with increased or reduced mortality. While we await randomized clinical trials, these data support the use of azithromycin in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can contribute to better understanding of its role in further meta-analyses.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References
Borba, Val, Sampaio, Alexandre, Melo et al., Effect of High vs Low Doses of Chloroquine Diphosphate as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA Netw. Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Lofgren et al., A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2016638
Chorin, Wadhwani, Magnani, Dai, Shulman et al., QT Interval Prolongation and Torsade De Pointes in Patients with COVID-19 treated with Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin, Heart Rhythm, doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.05.014
Craney, Surles, Model-Dependent Variance Inflation Factor Cutoff Values, Qual. Eng, doi:10.1081/QEN-120001878
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hoang, Meddeb et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: Results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Geleris, Sun, Platt, Zucker, Baldwin et al., Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2012410
Gielen, Johnston, Edwards, Azithromycin induces anti-viral responses in bronchial epithelial cells, Eur. Respir. J, doi:10.1183/09031936.00095809
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Antonelli, Cabrini et al., Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5394
Hsieh, Bloch, Larsen, A simple method of sample size calculation for linear and logistic regression, Stat. Med, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19980730)17:14<1623::AID-SIM871>3.0.CO;2-S
Kalil, Treating COVID-19-Off-Label Drug Use, Compassionate Use, and Randomized Clinical Trials During Pandemics, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4742
Kissler, Tedijanto, Goldstein, Grad, Lipsitch, Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period, Science, doi:10.1126/science.abb5793
Madrid, Panchal, Warren, Shurtleff, Endsley et al., Evaluation of Ebola Virus Inhibitors for Drug Repurposing, ACS Infect. Dis, doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis.5b00030
Mehra, Ruschitzka, Patel, Retraction-Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: A multinational registry analysis, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31324-6
Peduzzi, Concato, Kemper, Holford, Feinstein, A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis, J. Clin. Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00236-3
Retallack, Lullo, Arias, Knopp, Laurie et al., Zika virus cell tropism in the developing human brain and inhibition by azithromycin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, doi:10.1073/pnas.1618029113
Rosenberg, Dufort, Udo, Wilberschied, Kumar et al., Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State, JAMA
Thomas, Li, Pencina, Overlap Weighting: A Propensity Score Method That Mimics Attributes of a Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7819
Thomas, Li, Pencina, Using Propensity Score Methods to Create Target Populations in Observational Clinical Research, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.21558
Touret, Gilles, Barral, Nougairède, Van Helden et al., In vitro screening of a FDA approved chemical library reveals potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication, bioRxiv, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-70143-6
Vanderweele, Ding, Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Research: Introducing the E-Value, Ann. Intern. Med, doi:10.7326/M16-2607
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Yang, Liu et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res, doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit