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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 82% Improvement Relative Risk IgG+ 42% IgG+ (b) 79% IgG+ (c) 52% IgG+ (d) -70% HCQ for COVID-19  Yadav et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 500 patients in India Lower hospitalization (p=0.014) and fewer cases (p=0.049) Yadav et al., ResearchGate, September 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Sero-survey for health-care workers provides corroborative evidence for the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis against COVID-19 infection

Yadav et al., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34411.77603
Sep 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
ICMR seroprevalence survey of 500 healthcare workers in India, 279 taking HCQ prophylaxis, showing a significantly lower risk with treatment, and lower severity.
risk of hospitalization, 82.4% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.01, treatment 2 of 279 (0.7%), control 9 of 221 (4.1%), NNT 30, PCR+.
risk of IgG+, 41.8% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.049, treatment 17 of 178 (9.6%), control 27 of 221 (12.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
risk of IgG+, 79.0% lower, RR 0.21, p = 0.09, treatment 1 of 39 (2.6%), control 27 of 221 (12.2%), NNT 10, HCQ >10 weeks.
risk of IgG+, 52.4% lower, RR 0.48, p = 0.14, treatment 5 of 86 (5.8%), control 27 of 221 (12.2%), NNT 16, HCQ 6-10 weeks.
risk of IgG+, 69.9% higher, RR 1.70, p = 0.12, treatment 11 of 53 (20.8%), control 27 of 221 (12.2%), HCQ <6 weeks.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Yadav et al., 30 Sep 2020, retrospective, India, preprint, 11 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Dr Manisha Madkaikar
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in occupational exposure among health care workers (HCWs) and a high risk of nosocomial transmission. Asymptomatic infection and transmission of infection before the development of symptoms are well-recognised factors contributing to the spread of infection. The importance of understanding the dynamics of transmission in HCWs lies in planning strategies for the reduction of nosocomial spread. Methods A cross-sectional sero-surveillance study was conducted among 500 HCWs in Dombivli and surrounding Mumbai Metropolitan area (MMR, Maharashtra, India). The vulnerability of the study participants to SARS-CoV-2 infection was ascertained through a history of (i) involvement in direct care of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) patients, (ii) exposure to aerosol-generating procedures, (iii) presence of co-morbidities, (iv) use of Personal protective equipment(PPE), and (v) HCQ prophylaxis collected through a structured questionnaire. A systematic analysis of the correlation between the development of antibodies and factors affecting vulnerability to infection was performed. Findings The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the study population was 11%. Only about two-fifths of the HCWs who had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies reported symptoms consistent with a prior viral illness. Direct care to COVID -19 patients for longer hours and irregular use of PPE were associated with an increased incidence of seropositivity. Prophylaxis with Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may have a role in reducing the vulnerability to infection as depicted by univariate and multivariate analysis. It was also noted that those not on HCQ prophylaxis were three-fold more prone to infection as confirmed by RT-PCR and had severe manifestations as compared to those on HCQ prophylaxis. Interpretation HCQ may have a role in mitigating the incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection. A combined approach of optimised shift schedules, regular use of PPE, and HCQ prophylaxis may help safeguard our corona warriors.
Author Contribution: RMY analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. MM, AP and RMY designed and coordinated the study. RMY and UB designed the data collection tool. Data collection was done by AP, RMY, MP, MG, HP, MP, AS, SS. AS and SA performed the antibody testing. MM supervised the study, reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Source of funding: The study was funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), an autonomous Government-funded medical research council. The corresponding author who is Director of an ICMR institute was responsible for the study design, data analysis, and writing of the report. The corresponding author had access to all the data and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.
Banaji, What do the delhi and mumbai sero-survey results tell us about covid-19 in India? The Wire
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