Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Azvudine Meta Metformin Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Famotidine Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Favipiravir Meta Paxlovid Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Virological cure at day 21 21% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ  Tang et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 150 patients in China (February - February 2020) Improved viral clearance with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.51) Tang et al., BMJ 2020, 369, April 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial

Tang et al., BMJ 2020, 369, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1849
Apr 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
150 patients very late stage RCT showing no significant difference. Treatment very late, average 16.6 days after symptom onset.
Data favorable to HCQ was deleted in the second version, see analysis "[HCQ] accelerate[s] the alleviation of clinical symptoms"; "More rapid alleviation of clinical symptoms with SOC plus HCQ than with SOC alone was observed during the second week since randomization"; "The efficacy of HCQ on the alleviation of symptoms, HR 8.83 [1.09-71.3], was more evident when the confounding effects of other anti-viral agents were removed"
Although the viral clearance result is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 20% improved viral clearance [10‑28%] from meta analysis of the 44 viral clearance results to date.
risk of no virological cure at day 21, 21.4% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.51, treatment 11 of 75 (14.7%), control 14 of 75 (18.7%), NNT 25.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tang et al., 14 Apr 2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, China, peer-reviewed, 24 authors, study period 11 February, 2020 - 19 February, 2020, average treatment delay 16.6 days.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial
Wei Tang, Zhujun Cao, Mingfeng Han, Zhengyan Wang, Junwen Chen, Wenjin Sun, Yaojie Wu, Wei Xiao, Shengyong Liu, Erzhen Chen, Wei Chen, Xiongbiao Wang, Jiuyong Yang, Jun Lin, Qingxia Zhao, Youqin Yan, Zhibin Xie, Dan Li, Yaofeng Yang, Leshan Liu, Jieming Qu, Guang Ning, Guochao Shi, Qing Xie
BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1849
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care compared with standard of care alone in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN Multicentre, open label, randomised controlled trial. SETTING 16 government designated covid-19 treatment centres in China, 11 to 29 February 2020. PARTICIPANTS 150 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed covid-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis (75 patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine plus standard of care, 75 to standard of care alone). INTERVENTIONS Hydroxychloroquine administrated at a loading dose of 1200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintenance dose of 800 mg daily (total treatment duration: two or three weeks for patients with mild to moderate or severe disease, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Negative conversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by 28 days, analysed according to the intention to treat principle. Adverse events were analysed in the safety population in which hydroxychloroquine recipients were participants who received at least one dose of hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine nonrecipients were those managed with standard of care alone. RESULTS Of 150 patients, 148 had mild to moderate disease and two had severe disease. The mean duration from symptom onset to randomisation was 16.6 (SD 10.5; range 3-41) days. A total of 109 (73%) patients (56 standard of care; 53 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) had negative conversion well before 28 days, and the remaining 41 (27%) patients (19 standard of care; 22 standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine) were censored as they did not reach negative conversion of virus. The probability of negative conversion by 28 days in the standard of care plus hydroxychloroquine group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the standard of care group (81.3%, 71.2% to 89.6%). The difference between groups was 4.1% (95% confidence interval -10.3% to 18.5%). In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7/80 (9%) hydroxychloroquine non-recipients and in 21/70 (30%) hydroxychloroquine recipients. The most common adverse event in the hydroxychloroquine recipients was diarrhoea, reported in 7/70 (10%) patients. Two hydroxychloroquine recipients reported serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Administration of hydroxychloroquine did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion than standard of care alone in patients admitted to hospital with mainly persistent mild to moderate covid-19. Adverse events were higher in hydroxychloroquine recipients than in non-recipients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR2000029868.
Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at and declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work other than those listed above; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. Ethical approval: The trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (KY2020-29). All patients gave written informed consent. Data sharing: Anonymised datasets can be made available on reasonable request after approval from the trial management committee and after signing of a data access agreement. Proposals should be directed to the corresponding author. The lead authors (the manuscript's guarantors) affirm that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted; and that any discrepancies from the study as planned (and, if relevant, registered) have been explained. Dissemination to participants and related patient and public communities: There are no plans to disseminate the results of the research to study participants or the relevant patient community. Web appendix: Supplement Web appendix: Supplementary tables on 16 January 2022 by guest. Protected by copyright...
Baden, Rubin, Covid-19 -the search for effective therapy, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMe2005477
Cao, Wang, Wen, A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001282
Chen, Wu, Chen, Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study RESEARCH No commercial reuse: See rights and reprints, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1091
Dyall, Gross, Kindrachuk, Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome: current therapeutic options and potential targets for novel therapies, Drugs, doi:10.1007/s40265-017-0830-1
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of covid-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047
Harper, Bradley, Englund, Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Seasonal influenza in adults and children-diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1086/598513
Leung, Neal, Wakelee, Sequist, Marmor, Rapid onset of retinal toxicity from high-dose hydroxychloroquine given for cancer therapy, Am J Ophthalmol, doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2015.07.012
Munster, Gibbs, Shen, Hydroxychloroquine concentrationresponse relationships in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum, doi:10.1002/art.10307
Owens Rcjr, Nolin, Antimicrobial-associated QT interval prolongation: pointes of interest, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1086/508873
Piller, This is insane!" Many scientists lament Trump's embrace of risky malaria drugs for coronavirus
Rainsford, Parke, Clifford-Rashotte, Kean, Therapy and pharmacological properties of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases, Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-015-0239-y
Ray, Murray, Meredith, Narasimhulu, Hall et al., Oral erythromycin and the risk of sudden death from cardiac causes, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040582
Schrezenmeier, Dörner, Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology, Nat Rev Rheumatol, doi:10.1038/s41584-020-0372-x
Van Roon, Van Den Bemt, Jansen, Houtman, Van De Laar et al., An evidence-based assessment of the clinical significance of drug-drug interactions between disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and non-antirheumatic drugs according to rheumatologists and pharmacists, Clin Ther, doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.08.009
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res, doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0
Wang, Xu, Gao, Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3786
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Zheng, Yu, Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1443
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of over 100,000 datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop