Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

The Effect of Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin on the Corrected QT Interval in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Saleh et al., Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662
Apr 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
201 hospitalized patients. No serious side effects of HCQ. No instances of Torsade de pointes, or arrhythmogenic death were reported. They report that although use of these medications resulted in QT prolongation, clinicians seldom need to discontinue therapy.
Saleh et al., 29 Apr 2020, peer-reviewed, 17 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
The Effect of Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin on the Corrected QT Interval in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
MD Moussa Saleh, MD James Gabriels, MD David Chang, ; Beom, MD Soo Kim, MD Amtul Mansoor, MD Eitezaz Mahmood, MD Parth Makker, MD Haisam Ismail, MD Bruce Goldner, MD Jonathan Willner, MD Stuart Beldner, MD Raman Mitra, MBBS Roy John, MD Jason Chinitz, MD Nicholas Skipitaris, MD Stavros Mountantonakis, MD Laurence M Epstein
Background -The novel SARs-CoV-2 coronavirus is responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Small studies have shown a potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death. Methods -Hospitalized patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin from March 1st through the 23rd at three hospitals within the Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. Serial assessments of the QT interval were performed. The primary outcome was QT prolongation resulting in TdP. Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation and arrhythmogenic death. Results -Two hundred one patients were treated for COVID-19 with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) received hydroxychloroquine and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. The primary outcome of TdP was not observed in the entire population. Baseline QTc intervals did not differ between patients treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) vs. those treated with combination group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin) (440.6 ± 24.9 ms vs. 439.9 ± 24.7 ms, p =0.834). The maximum QTc during treatment was significantly longer in the combination group vs the monotherapy group (470.4 ± 45.0 ms vs. 453.3 ± 37.0 ms, p = 0.004). Seven patients (3.5%) required discontinuation of these medications due to QTc prolongation. No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported. Conclusions -In the largest reported cohort of COVID-19 patients to date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine ± azithromycin, no instances of TdP or arrhythmogenic death were reported. Although use of these medications resulted in QT prolongation, clinicians seldomly needed to discontinue therapy. Further study of the need for QT interval monitoring is needed before final recommendations can be made.
*These patients were monitored with MCOTs. The remainder were monitored with 12-lead electrocardiograms. †The cause of death for these patients was multi-system organ failure. ‡F: female, M: male, HCQ: hydroxychloroquine, AZM: azithromycin, CAD: coronary artery disease, HF: heart failure, EF: ejection fraction, HS: high sensitivity, Trop: troponin, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, Ca 2+ : calcium, ICU: intensive care unit *This was the only patient that monitored with an MCOT. The remainder were monitored with 12-lead electrocardiograms. †A transthoracic echocardiogram performed during the admission showed apical and mid left ventricular hypokinesis with sparing of the basal segments. ‡The cause of death was hypoxic respiratory failure and sepsis for both patients. F: female, M: male, §HCQ: hydroxychloroquine, AZM: azithromycin, CAD: coronary artery disease, HF: heart failure, EF: ejection fraction, HS: high sensitivity, Trop: troponin, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, Ca 2+ : calcium, ICU: intensive care unit QTc of 40-60 ms and >60 ms. QTc = Corrected QT; HCQ = Hydroxychloroquine; AZM = Azithromycin. What is Known: • The antimalaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine and the commonly used macrolide antibiotic azithromycin are all known to increase the corrected QT interval (QTc). • A QTc greater than 500 ms increases the risk of torsade de pointes by two to three-fold. Other risk factors include drug interactions affecting drug serum levels, concomitant use of QT..
References
Arellano-Rodrigo, García, Mont, Roqué, Torsade de pointes and cardiorespiratory arrest induced by azithromycin in a patient with congenital long QT syndrome, Med Clin (Barc)
Bouchaud, Imbert, Touze, Dodoo, Danis et al., Fatal cardiotoxicity related to halofantrine: a review based on a worldwide safety data base, Malar J
Chan, Kok, Zhu, Chu, To et al., Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan, Emerg Microbes Infect, doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902
Chen, Shan, Qian, Asians Do Not Exhibit Elevated Expression or Unique Genetic Polymorphisms for ACE2, the Cell-Entry Receptor of SARS-CoV-2, Preprints, doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0258.v2
Chen, Wang, Lin, Chronic hydroxychloroquine use associated with QT prolongation and refractory ventricular arrhythmia, Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Chico, Chandramohan, Azithromycin plus chloroquine: combination therapy for protection against malaria and sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy, Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, doi:10.1517/17425255.2011.598506
Drici, Clement, Is gender a risk factor for adverse drug reactions? The example of drug-induced long QT syndrome, Drug Saf
Huang, Wu, Hsia, Chen, Azithromycin-induced torsade de pointes, Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
Jun, Danping, Li, Ping, Qingnian et al., A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), J Zhejiang Univ (Med Sci), doi:10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.03
Kezerashvili, Khattak, Barsky, Nazari, Fisher, Azithromycin as a cause of QTinterval prolongation and torsade de pointes in the absence of other known precipitating factors, J Interv Card Electrophysiol
Khan, Ismail, Haider, High prevalence of the risk factors for QT interval prolongation and associated drug-drug interactions in coronary care units, Postgrad Med
Kim, Berkowitz, Trohman, Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with a normal QT interval following azithromycin, Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
Kuhn, Li, Choe, Farzan, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a functional receptor for SARS coronavirus, CMLS, doi:10.1007/s00018-004-4242-5
Lu, Zhao, Li, Niu, Yang et al., Genomic characterization and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8
Matsunaga, Oki, Prigollini, A case of QT-interval prolongation precipitated by azithromycin, N Z Med J
Mitra, Greenstein, Epstein, An algorithm for managing QT prolongation in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in conjunction with azithromycin: Possible benefits of intravenous lidocaine, HeartRhythm Case Reports, doi:10.1016/j.hrcr.2020.03.016
Monlun, Pillet, Cochard, Garrigues, Bras, Prolonged QT interval with halofantrine, Lancet
Morgan, Patel, Dvorkina, Suspected hydroxychloroquine-associated QT-interval prolongation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, J Clin Rheumatol
Negoescu, Thornback, Wong, Ostor, Long QT and hydroxychloroquine; a poorly recognized problem in rheumatology patients, Arthritis & Rheumatology
Ray, Murray, Hall, Arbogast, Stein, Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003833
Roden, Drici, Drug-induced sudden death
Roden, Predicting drug-induced QT prolongation and torsades de pointes, J Physiol
Roden, Taking the "idio" out of "idiosyncratic": predicting torsades de pointes, Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
Russo, Puzio, Siniscalchi, Azithromycin-induced QT prolongation in elderly patient, Acta Biomed
Samarendra, Kumari, Evans, Sacchi, Navarro, QT prolongation associated with azithromycin/amiodarone combination, Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
Sarganas, Garbe, Kimpel, Hering, Bronder et al., Epidemiology of symptomatic drug-induced long QT syndrome and Torsade de Pointes in Germany, Europace
Selzer, Wray, Quinidine syncope: paroxysmal ventricular fibrillation occurring during treatment of chronic atrial arrhythmias, Circulation
To, Tsang, Leung, Tam, Wu et al., Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1
Van Laecke, Hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia, Acta Clin Belg
Vandenberk, Vandael, Robyns, Vandenberghe, Garweg et al., Which QT Correction Formulae to Use for QT Monitoring?, J Am Heart Assoc, doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003264
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Erickson, Rollin et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol J, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69
Wan, Shang, Graham, Baric, Li, Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS, J Virol, doi:10.1128/JVI.00127-20
White, Cardiotoxicity of antimalarial drugs, Lancet Infect Dis
Wilders, Verkerk, Long QT Syndrome and Sinus Bradycardia-A Mini Review, Front Cardiovasc Med
Yang, Prinsen, Bersell, Shen, Yermalitskaya et al., Azithromycin Causes a Novel Proarrhythmic Syndrome, Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol, doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003560
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 5, 14]], 'date-time': '2024-05-14T00:16:13Z', 'timestamp': 1715645773122}, 'reference-count': 38, 'publisher': 'Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)', 'issue': '6', 'content-domain': {'domain': ['www.ahajournals.org'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 6]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Background:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>The novel SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is ' 'responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Small studies have shown a ' 'potential benefit of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin for the treatment of ' 'coronavirus disease 2019. Use of these medications alone, or in combination, can lead to a ' 'prolongation of the QT interval, possibly increasing the risk of Torsade de pointes and ' 'sudden cardiac death.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Hospitalized patients treated with ' 'chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin from March 1 to the 23 at 3 hospitals within the ' 'Northwell Health system were included in this prospective, observational study. Serial ' 'assessments of the QT interval were performed. The primary outcome was QT prolongation ' 'resulting in Torsade de pointes. Secondary outcomes included QT prolongation, the need to ' 'prematurely discontinue any of the medications due to QT prolongation, and arrhythmogenic ' 'death.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>\n' ' Two hundred one patients were treated for coronavirus disease 2019 with ' 'chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Ten patients (5.0%) received chloroquine, 191 (95.0%) ' 'received hydroxychloroquine, and 119 (59.2%) also received azithromycin. The primary outcome ' 'of torsade de pointes was not observed in the entire population. Baseline corrected QT ' 'interval intervals did not differ between patients treated with ' 'chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (monotherapy group) versus those treated with combination ' 'group (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin; 440.6±24.9 versus 439.9±24.7 ms,\n' ' <jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\n' ' =0.834). The maximum corrected QT interval during treatment was significantly ' 'longer in the combination group versus the monotherapy group (470.4±45.0 ms versus 453.3±37.0 ' 'ms,\n' ' <jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\n' ' =0.004). Seven patients (3.5%) required discontinuation of these medications ' 'due to corrected QT interval prolongation. No arrhythmogenic deaths were reported.\n' ' </jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusions:</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>In the largest reported cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 patients to ' 'date treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin, no instances of Torsade de ' 'pointes, or arrhythmogenic death were reported. Although use of these medications resulted in ' 'QT prolongation, clinicians seldomly needed to discontinue therapy. Further study of the need ' 'for QT interval monitoring is needed before final recommendations can be made.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1161/circep.120.008662', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 4, 29]], 'date-time': '2020-04-29T14:35:44Z', 'timestamp': 1588170944000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/crossmarkpolicy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 227, 'title': 'Effect of Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, and Azithromycin on the Corrected QT Interval in ' 'Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection', 'prefix': '10.1161', 'volume': '13', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7647-397X', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Moussa', 'family': 'Saleh', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}, { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Lenox ' 'Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY (M.S., P.M., N.S., ' 'S.M.).'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1095-6626', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'James', 'family': 'Gabriels', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9670-3952', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'David', 'family': 'Chang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Beom', 'family': 'Soo Kim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3765-1299', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Amtul', 'family': 'Mansoor', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Eitezaz', 'family': 'Mahmood', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1468-6504', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Parth', 'family': 'Makker', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}, { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Lenox ' 'Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY (M.S., P.M., N.S., ' 'S.M.).'}]}, { 'given': 'Haisam', 'family': 'Ismail', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Long ' 'Island Jewish Medical Center, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park ' '(H.I., B.G.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5957-4143', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Bruce', 'family': 'Goldner', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Long ' 'Island Jewish Medical Center, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park ' '(H.I., B.G.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Jonathan', 'family': 'Willner', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Stuart', 'family': 'Beldner', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0244-2254', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Raman', 'family': 'Mitra', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Roy', 'family': 'John', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}, { 'given': 'Jason', 'family': 'Chinitz', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, ' 'Southside Hospital, Northwell Health, Bay Shore (J.C.)'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1245-1576', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Nicholas', 'family': 'Skipitaris', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Lenox ' 'Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY (M.S., P.M., N.S., ' 'S.M.).'}]}, { 'given': 'Stavros', 'family': 'Mountantonakis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Lenox ' 'Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York, NY (M.S., P.M., N.S., ' 'S.M.).'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5410-0291', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Laurence M.', 'family': 'Epstein', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, North ' 'Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY ' '(M.S., J.G., D.C., B.S.K., A.M., E.M., P.M., J.W., S.B., R.M., ' 'R.J., L.M.E.)'}]}], 'member': '276', 'reference': [ { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_2_2', 'volume-title': 'Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report 74', 'author': 'World Health Organization', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation ' 'Report 74. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2020.'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_3_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1743-422X-2-69'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_4_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_5_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.hrcr.2020.03.016'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_6_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_7_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_8_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.00127-20'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_9_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00018-004-4242-5'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_10_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_11_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.20944/preprints202002.0258.v2'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_12_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.03'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_13_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/europace/eut214'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_14_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1113/JP270526'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_15_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/17843286.2018.1516173'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_16_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fcvm.2018.00106'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_17_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/00325481.2018.1516106'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_18_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1540-8159.1998.tb00148.x'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_19_2', 'volume-title': 'In: Sudden Cardiac Death: a Handbook For Clinical Practice', 'author': 'Roden DM', 'year': '2005', 'unstructured': 'Roden, DM, Drici, MD. Drug-induced sudden death. PrioriSG, ZipesDP, eds. ' 'In: Sudden Cardiac Death: a Handbook For Clinical Practice. Oxford: ' 'Blackwell Publishing; 2005.'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_20_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2165/00002018-200124080-00002'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_21_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.30875/1cee73f9-en'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_22_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1161/01.cir.30.1.17'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_23_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/0140-6736(93)90685-A'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_24_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1475-2875-8-289'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_25_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70187-1'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_26_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/15563650500514558'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_27_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1097/RHU.0b013e31829d5e50'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_28_2', 'first-page': '2045', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine; a poorly recognized problem in rheumatology ' 'patients.', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'Negoescu A', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Negoescu, A, Thornback, A, Wong, E, Ostor, A., Long, QT. ' 'Hydroxychloroquine; a poorly recognized problem in rheumatology ' 'patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2013;65:2045.', 'journal-title': 'Arthritis Rheumatol'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_29_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1161/JAHA.116.003264'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_30_2', 'first-page': 'U666', 'article-title': 'A case of QT-interval prolongation precipitated by azithromycin.', 'volume': '116', 'author': 'Matsunaga N', 'year': '2003', 'unstructured': 'Matsunaga, N, Oki, Y, Prigollini, A. A case of QT-interval prolongation ' 'precipitated by azithromycin. N Z Med J. 2003;116:U666.', 'journal-title': 'N Z Med J'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_31_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.01572.x'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_32_2', 'first-page': '30', 'article-title': 'Azithromycin-induced QT prolongation in elderly patient.', 'volume': '77', 'author': 'Russo V', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Russo, V, Puzio, G, Siniscalchi, N. Azithromycin-induced QT prolongation ' 'in elderly patient. Acta Biomed. 2006;77:30–32.', 'journal-title': 'Acta Biomed'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_33_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/s0025-7753(01)72036-2'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_34_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10840-007-9124-y'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_35_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1540-8159.2007.00912.x'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_36_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1540-8159.2005.50146.x'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_37_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa1003833'}, {'key': 'e_1_3_5_38_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003560'}, { 'key': 'e_1_3_5_39_2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1517/17425255.2011.598506'}], 'container-title': 'Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 5, 13]], 'date-time': '2024-05-13T01:21:04Z', 'timestamp': 1715563264000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 6]]}, 'references-count': 38, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '6', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 6]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1941-3149', '1941-3084'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'Circ: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 6]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '2020-04-05', 'order': 0, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2020-04-28', 'order': 1, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2020-04-29', 'order': 2, 'name': 'published', 'label': 'Published', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit