Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Hydroxychloroquine Does Not Prevent COVID-19 nor Virus Related Venous Thromboembolism

Perrella et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13102052
Oct 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Mortality 60% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation -71% ARDS -33% Case -476% HCQ for COVID-19  Perrella et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 26,325 patients in Italy More cases with HCQ (p=0.0000022) c19hcq.org Perrella et al., Viruses, October 2021 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 8,811 HCQ users and 17,514 control patients, showing higher risk of COVID-19 for HCQ users. There were 12 cases for the 8,811 HCQ patients. There is no count for the control group that produces the reported unadjusted OR 4.96. The closest is 5 cases for the 17,514 patients, or 0.02%.
Authors note that the period studied, Mar 8 - Apr 28, 2020, corresponds to an epidemic outbreak in the region studied, Campania. Signorelli et al.1 show a prevalence of 0.53% as of April 7, 2020, suggesting that the control group chosen in this study may not accurately represent the prevalence of COVID-19 at the time.
Authors do not adjust for the very different baseline risk for patients on HCQ, often systemic autoimmune disease patients. Other research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall, Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.0012.
risk of death, 60.0% lower, RR 0.40, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 12 (0.0%), control 1 of 24 (4.2%), NNT 24, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 71.4% higher, RR 1.71, p = 0.28, treatment 6 of 12 (50.0%), control 7 of 24 (29.2%).
risk of ARDS, 33.3% higher, RR 1.33, p = 0.70, treatment 4 of 12 (33.3%), control 6 of 24 (25.0%).
risk of case, 476.4% higher, RR 5.76, p < 0.001, treatment 12 of 8,811 (0.1%), control 24 of 17,514 (0.1%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Perrella et al., 13 Oct 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact: alessandro.perrella@aocardarelli.it (corresponding author), valentina.orlando@unina.it, enrica.menditto@unina.it, ugo.trama@regione.campania.it, bernardi.francesca.futura@gmail.com, coscionienrico@gmail.com.
This PaperHCQAll
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Hydroxychloroquine Does Not Prevent COVID-19 nor Virus Related Venous Thromboembolism
Alessandro Perrella, Valentina Orlando, Ugo Trama, Francesca F Bernardi, Enrica Menditto, Enrico Coscioni
Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13102052
Different and several public health strategies have been planned to reduce transmission of pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 since it started. None drugs have been confirmed as able to prevent viral transmission. Hydroxychloroquine with its immunomodulatory properties has been proposed as potential anti-viral drug in particular for prevention once viral exposure has been happen or in first phases of infection. Furthermore, in several immunological systemic disease hydroxychloroquine was able to reduce the number of thrombotic complications. So, because COVID-19 was associated to immunological imbalance and to thrombotic complications, we retrospectively analyzed the rate of infection in those patients being under treatment with this drug during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak from 8 March until 28 April in particular comparing those with pre-exposure to this treatment and those that were not taking this medication before SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Lofgren et al., A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2016638
Desai, Field, Grant, Mccormack, Recent advances in pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.j5011
Guerriero, Orlando, Monetti, Russo, Colaccio et al., Biologic therapy utilization, switching and cost among patients with psoriasis: Retrospective analysis of administrative databases in Southern Italy, Clin. Outcomes Res, doi:10.2147/CEOR.S147558
Kravvariti, Koutsogianni, Samoli, Sfikakis, Tektonidou, The effect of hydroxychloroquine on thrombosis prevention and antiphospholipid antibody levels in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: A pilot open label randomized prospective study, Autoimmun. Rev, doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102491
Misra, Gasparyan, Zimba, Benefits and adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and colchicine: Searching for repurposable drug candidates, Rheumatol. Int, doi:10.1007/s00296-020-04694-2
Orlando, Coscioni, Guarino, Mucherino, Perrella et al., Drug-utilisation profiles and COVID-19, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88398-y
Orlando, Monetti, Moreno, Russo, Mucherino et al., Drug Utilization Pattern of Antibiotics: The Role of Age, Sex and Municipalities in Determining Variation, Risk Manag. Healthc. Policy, doi:10.2147/RMHP.S223042
Orlando, Rea, Savaré, Guarino, Mucherino et al., Development and validation of a clinical risk score to predict the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from administrative data: A population-based cohort study from Italy, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237202
Perrella, Carannante, Berretta, Rinaldi, Maturo et al., Novel Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2): A global emergency that needs new approaches?, Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol
Perrella, Esposito, Amato, Santaniello, Antifungal prophylaxis with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin in high-risk patients after liver transplantation: Impact on fungal infections and immune system, Infect. Dis, doi:10.3109/23744235.2015.1100322
Perrella, Esposito, Pisaniello, D'alessio, Perrella et al., Role of liposomal Amphotericin B prophylaxis after liver transplantation compared with fluconazole for high-risk patients. Impact on infections and mortality within one year, Transplant. Proc, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.013
Perrella, Lanza, Santaniello, Pisaniello, Dicostanzo et al., Telbivudin as prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation: A case series in single-center experience, Transplant. Proc, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.019
Petri, Konig, Li, Goldman, Association of Higher Hydroxychloroquine Blood Levels With Reduced Thrombosis Risk in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Arthritis Rheumatol, doi:10.1002/art.41621
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Zhou, Chen, Chen, Advances in COVID-19: The Virus, the Pathogenesis, and Evidence-Based Control and Therapeutic Strategies, Front. Med, doi:10.1007/s11684-020-0773-x
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 28]], 'date-time': '2023-08-28T17:24:47Z', 'timestamp': 1693243487663}, 'reference-count': 15, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '10', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 13]], 'date-time': '2021-10-13T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1634083200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Different and several public health strategies have been planned to reduce ' 'transmission of pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 since it started. None drugs have been confirmed ' 'as able to prevent viral transmission. Hydroxychloroquine with its immunomodulatory ' 'properties has been proposed as potential anti-viral drug in particular for prevention once ' 'viral exposure has been happen or in first phases of infection. Furthermore, in several ' 'immunological systemic disease hydroxychloroquine was able to reduce the number of thrombotic ' 'complications. So, because COVID-19 was associated to immunological imbalance and to ' 'thrombotic complications, we retrospectively analyzed the rate of infection in those patients ' 'being under treatment with this drug during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak from 8 March until 28 ' 'April in particular comparing those with pre-exposure to this treatment and those that were ' 'not taking this medication before SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/v13102052', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 14]], 'date-time': '2021-10-14T01:55:02Z', 'timestamp': 1634176502000}, 'page': '2052', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 5, 'title': 'Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Hydroxychloroquine Does Not Prevent COVID-19 nor Virus Related ' 'Venous Thromboembolism', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '13', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2812-8500', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Alessandro', 'family': 'Perrella', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8209-8878', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Valentina', 'family': 'Orlando', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ugo', 'family': 'Trama', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Francesca F.', 'family': 'Bernardi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Enrica', 'family': 'Menditto', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Enrico', 'family': 'Coscioni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '1968', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 13]]}, 'reference': [ {'key': 'ref1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2016638'}, {'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11684-020-0773-x'}, { 'key': 'ref3', 'first-page': '2162', 'article-title': 'Novel Coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2): A global emergency that needs new ' 'approaches?', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Perrella', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol.'}, {'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237'}, {'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00296-020-04694-2'}, {'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.j5011'}, {'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2147/CEOR.S147558'}, {'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2147/RMHP.S223042'}, {'key': 'ref9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-021-88398-y'}, {'key': 'ref10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3109/23744235.2015.1100322'}, { 'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.013'}, { 'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.06.019'}, {'key': 'ref13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0237202'}, {'key': 'ref14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/art.41621'}, {'key': 'ref15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102491'}], 'container-title': 'Viruses', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/10/2052/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 14]], 'date-time': '2021-10-14T01:55:24Z', 'timestamp': 1634176524000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/10/2052'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 13]]}, 'references-count': 15, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '10', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['v13102052'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13102052', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1999-4915'], 'subject': ['Virology', 'Infectious Diseases'], 'container-title-short': 'Viruses', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 13]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit