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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Death/ICU 32% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Lammers et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 1,064 patients in Netherlands Lower death/ICU with HCQ (p=0.024) Lammers et al., Int. J. Infectious Dis.., Sep 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Early hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine use reduces ICU admission in COVID-19 patients

Lammers et al., Int. J. Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.1460
Sep 2020  
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Observational study 1,064 hospitalized patients in the Netherlands, 53% reduced risk of transfer to the ICU for mechanical ventilation with HCQ treatment starting on the first day of admission.
Weighted propensity score adjusted hazard ratio for transfer to the ICU with HCQ treatment, HR = 0.47, p = 0.008. For CQ, HR = 0.8, p = 0.207. Mortality results in this study are only for mortality before transfer to the ICU. The combined ICU/death HR was 0.68, p = 0.024 for HCQ, and 0.85, p = 0.224 for CQ.
Observational, multicenter, cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. 189 HCQ patients, 377 CQ, 498 control.
risk of death/ICU, 32.0% lower, HR 0.68, p = 0.02, treatment 30 of 189 (15.9%), control 101 of 498 (20.3%), adjusted per study.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lammers et al., 29 Sep 2020, prospective, Netherlands, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
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Early hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine use reduces ICU admission in COVID-19 patients
A J J Lammers, R M Brohet, R E P Theunissen, C Koster, R Rood, D W M Verhagen, K Brinkman, R J Hassing, A Dofferhoff, R El Moussaoui, G Hermanides, J Ellerbroek, N Bokhizzou, H Visser, M Van Den Berge, H Bax, D F Postma, P H P Groeneveld
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.1460
Background: The global push for the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) against COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing discussion about the effectivity and toxicity of these drugs. Recent studies report no effect of (H)CQ on 28-day mortality. We investigated the effect of HCQ and CQ in hospitalized patients on the non-ICU COVID-ward. Methods: A nationwide, observational cohort study was performed in The Netherlands. Hospitals were given the opportunity to decide independently on the use of three different COVID-19 treatment strategies: HCQ, CQ, or no treatment. We compared the outcomes between these groups. The primary outcomes were 1) death on the COVID-19 ward, and 2) transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: The analysis included 1064 patients from 14 hospitals: 566 patients received treatment with either HCQ (n = 189) or CQ (n = 377), and 498 patients received no treatment. In a multivariate propensitymatched weighted competing regression analysis, there was no significant effect of (H)CQ on mortality on the COVID ward. However, HCQ was associated with a significantly decreased risk of transfer to the ICU (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008) when compared with controls. This effect was not found in the CQ group (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.55-1.15, p = 0.207). Conclusion: The results of this observational study demonstrate a lack of effect of (H)CQ on non-ICU mortality. However, we show that the use of HCQbut not CQis associated with a 53% reduction in risk of transfer of COVID-19 patients from the regular ward to the ICU. Recent prospective studies have reported on 28-day, all-cause mortality only; therefore, additional prospective data on the early effects of HCQ in preventing transfer to the ICU are still needed.
Conflict of interests The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Ethical approval The Medical Ethics Review Committee waived ethical approval for this study.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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