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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -134% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Kuderer et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 928 patients in the USA Higher mortality with HCQ (p=0.0000014) Kuderer et al., Lancet, June 20, 2020, May 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study

Kuderer et al., Lancet, June 20, 2020, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9 (date from preprint)
May 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 928 cancer patients, showing HCQ OR 1.06 [0.51-2.20]. HCQ+AZ OR 2.93 [1.79-4.79]. The relative risks of different therapies suggest that the results are overly affected by confounding by indication. Authors note: HCQ+AZ might not be the cause of increased mortality, but instead these were given to patients with more severe COVID-19.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 134.2% higher, RR 2.34, p < 0.001, treatment 45 of 181 (24.9%), control 76 of 747 (10.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ+AZ.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kuderer et al., 28 May 2020, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 73 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
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Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop