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The effect of Hydroxychloroquine use due to rheumatic disease on the risk of Covid-19 infection and its course

Korkmaz et al., Authorea, doi:10.22541/au.162257516.68665404/v1
Jun 2021  
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Mortality 82% Improvement Relative Risk Case 94% HCQ for COVID-19  Korkmaz et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 694 patients in Turkey Fewer cases with HCQ (p<0.000001) c19hcq.org Korkmaz et al., Authorea, June 2021 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 683 patients in a rheumatology department, 384 chronic HCQ users and 299 control patients, showing no mortality for HCQ users vs. 2 deaths in the control group, and significantly fewer cases for HCQ users.
risk of death, 82.1% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.19, treatment 0 of 385 (0.0%), control 2 of 299 (0.7%), NNT 150, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of case, 93.7% lower, RR 0.06, p < 0.001, treatment 2 of 395 (0.5%), control 24 of 299 (8.0%), NNT 13.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Korkmaz et al., 1 Jun 2021, retrospective, Turkey, preprint, 4 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
The effect of Hydroxychloroquine use due to rheumatic disease on the risk of Covid-19 infection and its course
Tanzer Korkmaz, Aslı Şener, Vedat Gerdan, İlker Kızıloglu
doi:10.22541/au.162257516.68665404/v1
Introduction COVID-19 virus continues to spread and die worldwide. Some studies examining hydroxychloroquine as a prophylactic agent reported that its efficiency and reliability have not been proven so that it must not be used for prophylaxis other than clinical researches. However we think that the results of this study we conducted in a local area will contribute to the literature data. Methods The study was designed as adult patients who were in follow-up taking HC due to their chronic diseases were included. 384 patients who were taking hydroxychloroquine regularly and 299 patients who were not taking hydroxychloroquine were included. The primary outcome of this study is to detect a positive PCR result in patients who received a PCR test and to determine the incidence rate and its course of the disease among those who were taking HC and those who were not taking hydroxychloroquine. Results The majority of the patients (median age: 51.8-range 17-89) were women and housewives. In the patient group using hydroxychloroquine, 22 patients were tested for PCR and only 2 positive patients were found. Covid-19 was detected in 24 (8.02%) of 65 (21.73%) patients who underwent PCR test at Control group (n = 299). PCR positivity was statistically lower in the HK group (n = 2, 0.52%, n = 24, 8.02%, respectively, p = 0.0001). Conclusions Our study supported the fact that there is a lower PCR positivity and symptoms are milder among patients who are using HC regularly, as compared to those who are not using hydroxychloroquine. The effect of Hydroxychloroquine use due to rheumatic disease on the risk of Covid-19 infection and its course
Author contributions: All the authors contributed intellectually and directly to the preparation of this article, and read and approved the current version of the article for publication. Conflicting interests: The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest. Hosted file Table1.docx available at https://authorea.com/users/417382/articles/524514-the-effect-ofhydroxychloroquine-use-due-to-rheumatic-disease-on-the-risk-of-covid-19-infection-andits-course
References
Abella, Jolkovsky, Biney, Uspal, Hyman et al., Efficacy and Safety of Hydroxychloroquine vs Placebo for Pre-exposure SARS-CoV-2 Prophylaxis Among Health Care Workers: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA Internal Medicine, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6319
Agrawal, Gad, Gupta, Emerging prophylaxis strategies against COVID-19, Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Lofgren et al., A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19, New England Journal of Medicine
Gao, Tz, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, BioScience Trends /Advance Publication, doi:.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01047
Gautret, Lj, Parola, Hoang, Meddeb et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Gendelman, Amital, Bragazzi, Watad, Chodick, Continuous hydroxychloroquine or colchicine therapy does not prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2: Insights from a large healthcare database analysis, Autoimmun Rev
Goldman, Diaz, Urba, Use of hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin for patients with COVID-19 is not supported by recent literature, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Monti, Vertogen, Masini, Donati, Lilli et al., Hydroxychloroquine as Prophylaxis for COVID-19: A Review, Frontiers in pharmacology
Pereira, Challenges and cares to promote rational use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: a timely review, J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev
Rajasingham, Bangdiwala, Nicol, Skipper, Pastick et al., Hydroxychloroquine as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Trial, Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1571
Rosendaal, Review of: "Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial Gautret et al, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Savarino, Boelaert, Cassone, Majori, Cauda, Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?, Lancet Infect Dis
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Erickson, Rollin et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virology Journal
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Yang, Liu et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wcdc, Dashboard
Yang, Islam, Wang, Li, Chen, Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Patients Infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Review and Perspective, International journal of biological sciences
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
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