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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 50% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Fontana et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 15 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.53) Fontana et al., Clinical Kidney J., 33.., Jun 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

SARS-CoV-2 infection in dialysis patients in northern Italy: a single-centre experience

Fontana et al., Clinical Kidney Journal, 13:3, 334–339, doi:10.1093/ckj/sfaa084
Jun 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Very small observational study of 15 dialysis patients showing HCQ mortality RR 0.50, p = 0.53.
risk of death, 50.0% lower, RR 0.50, p = 0.53, treatment 4 of 12 (33.3%), control 2 of 3 (66.7%), NNT 3.0.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Fontana et al., 22 Jun 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Severe acute respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in dialysis patients in northern Italy: a single-centre experience
Francesco Fontana, Francesco Giaroni, Monica Frisina, Gaetano Alfano, Giacomo Mori, Leonardo Lucchi, Riccardo Magistroni, Gianni Cappelli
Clinical Kidney Journal, doi:10.1093/ckj/sfaa084
Background. Dialysis patients are considered at high risk for COVID-19 and the infection can easily spread in dialysis units. Methods. We conducted an observational single-centre cohort study to describe clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of dialysis patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We tested patients who presented symptoms or had contact with a confirmed case. We enrolled 15 patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. Results. We tested 37 of 306 dialysis patients. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were older (mean age 75.96 6 11.09 years) and all had comorbidities. At presentation, most had interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray, three-quarters had leucopenia and none had respiratory insufficiency. During follow-up, there was an increase in serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Eighty percent of patients received supplemental oxygen; none received non-invasive ventilation, one was intubated. Most patients (80%) were treated with oral hydroxychloroquine for a median time of 6.5 days [interquartile range (IQR) 5-14.5] and 40% received azithromycin; two patients received a short course of antivirals and one received a single dose of tocilizumab. Only two patients did not require hospitalization. Of the nine survivors, eight still tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 a median of 19 days (IQR 9.25-23) after diagnosis. Six patients died (case fatality rate 40%) a median of 5.5 days (IQR 1.75-9.75) after diagnosis. The main reported cause of death was respiratory failure related to COVID-19 (five patients). Conclusions. We report a single-centre experience of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dialysis patients. The disease showed a high case fatality rate and most patients required hospitalization. Survivors show prolonged viral shedding.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS F.F. conceived the study, collected and analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. F.G., M.F. and L.L. collected the data. G.A. and G.M. collected the data and contributed to the analysis. R.M. and G.C. critically revised the manuscript. CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT None declared.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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