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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk Boari et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 258 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.001) Boari et al, Biosci. Rep., doi:10.1042/BSR20203455 Favors HCQ Favors control
Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID-19 and related pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
Boari et al, Biosci. Rep., doi:10.1042/BSR20203455
Boari, Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID-19 and related pneumonia: a retrospective.., et al, Biosci. Rep., doi:10.1042/BSR20203455
Nov 2020   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 258 hospitalized patients in Italy showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, unadjusted relative risk RR 0.455, p<0.001. Data is in the supplementary appendix. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of death, 54.5% lower, RR 0.45, p < 0.001, treatment 41 of 202 (20.3%), control 25 of 56 (44.6%), NNT 4.1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Boari et al., 17 Nov 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 20 authors.
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Abstract: Bioscience Reports (2020) 40 BSR20203455 Research Article Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID-19 and related pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study 1 Division of Medicine, Covid-19 Unit M, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Montichiari, Brescia, Italy; 2 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Correspondence: Damiano Rizzoni ( The aim of the present study was to simultaneously assess several potential predictors of outcome (co-morbidity, previous and in-hospital treatment, radiologic Brixia score) in patients with COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study included 258 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a medical ward at Montichiari Hospital, Brescia, Italy from February 28th to April 30rd, 2020. Patients had SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia with respiratory failure, and were treated with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir plus ritonavir. In some patients, additional treatment with tocilizumab, dexamethasone and enoxaparin was adopted. Outcomes (death or recovery) were assessed at the end of the discharge period or at the end of the follow-up (August 2020). During hospitalization, 59 patients died, while 6 died after discharge. The following variables were demonstrated to be associated with a worse prognosis: Radiologic Brixia score higher than 8, presence at baseline of hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, cancer, previous treatment with ACE-inhibitors or anti-platelet drugs. Anticoagulant treatment during hospital admission with enoxaparin at a dose higher than 4000 U once daily was associated with a better prognosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that some co-morbidities and cardiovascular risk factors may affect prognosis. The radiologic Brixia score may be a useful tool to stratify the risk of death at baseline. Anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin might be associated to a clinical benefit in terms of survival in patients with COVID-19.
Late treatment
is less effective
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