Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Boari et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 258 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.001) Boari et al., Biosci. Rep., November 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID-19 and related pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Boari et al., Biosci. Rep., doi:10.1042/BSR20203455
Nov 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 258 hospitalized patients in Italy showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, unadjusted relative risk RR 0.455, p<0.001. Data is in the supplementary appendix. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of death, 54.5% lower, RR 0.45, p < 0.001, treatment 41 of 202 (20.3%), control 25 of 56 (44.6%), NNT 4.1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Boari et al., 17 Nov 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 20 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID-19 and related pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
Gianluca E M Boari, Giulia Chiarini, Silvia Bonetti, Paolo Malerba, Gianluca Bianco, Cristina Faustini, Federico Braglia-Orlandini, Daniele Turini, Vittoria Guarinoni, Michele Saottini, Sara Viola, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Giancarlo Pasini, Cristina Mascadri, Bianca Bonzi, Paolo Desenzani, Claudia Tusi, Eros Zanotti, Matteo Nardin, Damiano Rizzoni
Bioscience Reports, doi:10.1042/bsr20203455
The aim of the present study was to simultaneously assess several potential predictors of outcome (co-morbidity, previous and in-hospital treatment, radiologic Brixia score) in patients with COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study included 258 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a medical ward at Montichiari Hospital, Brescia, Italy from February 28th to April 30rd, 2020. Patients had SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia with respiratory failure, and were treated with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir plus ritonavir. In some patients, additional treatment with tocilizumab, dexamethasone and enoxaparin was adopted. Outcomes (death or recovery) were assessed at the end of the discharge period or at the end of the follow-up (August 2020). During hospitalization, 59 patients died, while 6 died after discharge. The following variables were demonstrated to be associated with a worse prognosis: Radiologic Brixia score higher than 8, presence at baseline of hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, cancer, previous treatment with ACE-inhibitors or anti-platelet drugs. Anticoagulant treatment during hospital admission with enoxaparin at a dose higher than 4000 U once daily was associated with a better prognosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that some co-morbidities and cardiovascular risk factors may affect prognosis. The radiologic Brixia score may be a useful tool to stratify the risk of death at baseline. Anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin might be associated to a clinical benefit in terms of survival in patients with COVID-19.
Competing Interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript. Author Contribution Gianluca E.M. Boari Design, data analysis and graphics. Giulia Chiarini Data collection. Silvia Bonetti Data collection. Paolo Malerba Data collection. Gianluca Bianco Data collection. Cristina Faustini Data collection. Federico Braglia-Orlandini Data collection. Daniele Turini, Data collection. Vittoria Guarinoni, Clinical handling of patients and data collection. Michele Saottini, Clinical handling of patients and data collection. Sara Viola, Clinical handling of patients and data collection. Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Clinical handling of patients and data collection. Giancarlo Pasini, Clinical handling of patients and data collection. Cristina Mascadri Abbreviations γGT, gamma glutamyl transferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CRP, c-reactive protein; INR, international normalized ratio.
Badawi, Ryoo, Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.06.015
Bonetti, Lerman, Lerman, Endothelial dysfunction -a marker of atherosclerotic risk, Arterioscl. Throm. Vasc. Biol, doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000051384.43104.FC
Borghesi, Maroldi, COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: experimental chest X-ray scoring system for quantifying and monitoring disease progression, Radiol. Med
Borghesi, Zigliani, Golemi, Carapella, Maculotti et al., Chest X-ray severity index as a predictor of in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019: A study of 302 patients from Italy, Int. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.021
Breslow, 001 Differences between survival curves: Log Rank
Breslow, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, None, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, None, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, None, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, None, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, None, Generalized Wilcoxon
Breslow, Tarone-Ware p=0.003 Differences between survival curves: Log Rank (Mantel -Cox ) p=0
Chu, Cheng, Hung, Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings, Thorax, doi:10.1136/thorax.2003.012658
Cook, The importance of hypertension as a risk factor for severe illness and mortality in COVID-19, Anaesthesia, doi:10.1111/anae.15103
De Rossi, Scarpazza, Filippini, Cordioli, Rasia et al., Early use of low dose tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study with a complete follow-up, EClinicalMedicine
Di Castelnuovo, De Caterina, De Gaetano, Iacoviello, Controversial relationship between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and severity of COVID-19: announcing a large multicentre case-control study in Italy, Hypertension, doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15370
Ferrario, Jessup, Chappell, Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.510461
Flammer, Anderson, Celermajer, The assessment of endothelial function: from research 168-75 into clinical practice, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.093245
Gao, Cai, Zhang, Association of hypertension and antihypertensive treatment with COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective observational study, Eur. Heart J, doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa433
Guan, Ni, Hu, Liang, Ou et al., China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Huang, Jiang, Chen, Zhou, Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system: the potential role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, Cardiol. J, doi:10.5603/CJ.a2020.0056
Huang, Wang, Li, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Hypothesis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, J. Travel Med
Iaccarino, Grassi, Borghi, Ferri, Salvetti et al., Age and multimorbidity predict death among COVID-19 patients: results of the SARS-RAS study of the Italian Society of Hypertension, Hypertension, doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15324
Jordan, Adab, Cheng, Covid-19: risk factors for severe disease and death, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1198
Kuster, Pfister, Burkard, Zhou, Twerenbold, SARS-CoV2: should inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system be withdrawn in patients with COVID-19?, Eur. Heart J, doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa235
Monteil, Prado, Hagelkr Üys, Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infections in engineered human tissues using clinical-grade soluble human ACE2, Cell, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004
P=0, -Cox ) p=0
P=0, -Cox ) p=0
P=0, None
P=0, None
P=0, None
P=0, None
P=0, None
Ruilope, Tamargo, Ruiz-Hurtado, Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of antihypertensive drugs, Eur. Heart J, doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa487
Sanchis-Gomar, Lavie, Perez-Quilis, Henry, Lippi, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and antihypertensives (Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors) in coronavirus disease 2019, Mayo Clin. Proc, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.03.026
Sanders, Monogue, Jodlowski, Cutrell, Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review, JAMA
Schiffrin, Flack, Ito, Muntner, Webb, Hypertension and COVID-19, Am. J. Hypertens, doi:10.1093/ajh/hpaa057
Singh, Gupta, Misra, Comorbidities in COVID-19: Outcomes in hypertensive cohort and controversies with renin angiotensin system blockers, Diab. Metab. Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.016
Sommerstein, Kochen, Messerli, Ch, Äni, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers have a biphasic effect?, J. Am. Heart Assoc, doi:10.1161/JAHA.120.016509
Tang, Bai, Chen, Gong, Li et al., Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy, J. Thromb. Haemost, doi:10.1111/jth.14817
Tarone-Ware, 001 Differences between survival curves: Log Rank
Tarone-Ware, 001 Differences between survival curves: Log Rank
Tarone-Ware, None
Thachil, The versatile heparin in COVID-19, J. Thromb. Haemost, doi:10.1111/jth.14821
Varga, Flammer, Steiger, Haberecker, Andermatt et al., Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol. J, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Xu, Shi, Wang, Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, Lancet Respir. Med, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X
Yang, Tan, Zhou, Yang, Peng et al., Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Inhibitors on virus infection, inflammatory status, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and hypertension: a single-center retrospective study, Hypertension, doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15143
Yin, Huang, Li, Tang, Difference of coagulation features between severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV2 and non-SARS-CoV2, J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
Zhang, Cao, Xiao, Li, Yang et al., Clinical and coagulation characteristics of 7 patients with critical COVID-2019 pneumonia and acro-ischemia, Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Zhou, Zhu, Xu, Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, Clin. Exp. Hypertens, doi:10.1080/10641963.2020.1764018
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop