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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 28% Improvement Relative Risk Case (b) 26% HCQ for COVID-19  Behera et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 372 patients in India Fewer cases with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.29) Behera et al., PLoS ONE, November 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study

Behera et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (date from preprint)
Nov 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin.
HCQ OR 0.56, p = 0.29
Ivermectin OR 0.27, p < 0.001
Vitamin C OR 0.82, p = 0.58
Although the 28% fewer cases is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 28% fewer cases [20‑35%] from meta analysis of the 81 cases results to date.
Study covers vitamin C, ivermectin, and HCQ.
risk of case, 27.9% lower, RR 0.72, p = 0.29, treatment 7 of 19 (36.8%), control 179 of 353 (50.7%), NNT 7.2, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, model 2 conditional logistic regression.
risk of case, 26.3% lower, RR 0.74, p = 0.25, treatment 7 of 19 (36.8%), control 179 of 353 (50.7%), NNT 7.2, odds ratio converted to relative risk, matched pair analysis.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Behera et al., 3 Nov 2020, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 13 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
Priyamadhaba Behera, Binod Kumar Patro, Arvind Kumar Singh, Pradnya Dilip Chandanshive, Ravikumar S. R., Somen Kumar Pradhan, Siva Santosh Kumar Pentapati, Gitanjali Batmanabane, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra, Biswa Mohan Padhy, Shakti Kumar Bal, Sudipta Ranjan Singh, Rashmi Ranjan Mohanty
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163
Background Ivermectin is one among several potential drugs explored for its therapeutic and preventive role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study was aimed to explore the association between ivermectin prophylaxis and the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers. Methods A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted among healthcare workers of AIIMS Bhubaneswar, India, from September to October 2020. Profession, gender, age and date of diagnosis were matched for 186 case-control pairs. Cases and controls were healthcare workers who tested positive and negative, respectively, for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. Exposure was defined as the intake of ivermectin and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or vitamin-C and/or other prophylaxis for COVID-19. Data collection and entry was done in Epicol-lect5, and analysis was performed using STATA version 13. Conditional logistic regression models were used to describe the associated factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Ivermectin prophylaxis was taken by 76 controls and 41 cases. Two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis (AOR 0.27, 95% CI, 0.15-0.51) was associated with a 73% reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers for the following month. Those involved in physical activity (AOR 3.06 95% CI, 1.18-7.93) for more than an hour/day were more likely to contract SARS-CoV-2 infection. Type of household, COVID duty, single-dose ivermectin
Supporting information S1 Appendix. Questionnaire used in the study (English and Odia language). (PDF) S1 Protocol. Study protocol. (DOC) Author Contributions
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