Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

A retrospective comparison of drugs against COVID-19

Tan et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262
Dec 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Hospitalization time 35% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Tan et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 285 patients in China Shorter hospitalization with HCQ (p=0.038) c19hcq.org Tan et al., Virus Research, December 2020 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 333 patients in China, with only 8 HCQ patients, showing shorter duration of hospitalization with HCQ.
hospitalization time, 35.2% lower, relative time 0.65, p = 0.04, treatment 8, control 277.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tan et al., 14 Dec 2020, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
A retrospective comparison of drugs against COVID-19
Jiahong Tan, Yuan Yuan, Cheng Xu, Chunyan Song, Dan Liu, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has posed serious threats to the general population. To relieve the crisis, a comparison of drug effects against COVID-19 is instructive. Between January 27, 2020 and March 21, 2020, a total of 333 patients treated with arbidol, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or oseltamivir monotherapy, having definite outcomes and serological antibody detection results, were retrospectively analyzed. The hydroxychloroquine group had a significantly reduced duration of hospital stay than the arbidol and corticosteroids groups. The oseltamivir group had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay than the arbidol, corticosteroids, and lopinavir/ritonavir groups. The hydroxychloroquine group had a significantly higher IgM titer than the other four groups and exhibited significantly higher IgG levels than the arbidol, lopinavir/ritonavir, and oseltamivir groups. Our findings indicated that hydroxychloroquine might have the potential for efficient COVID-19 management, while oseltamivir should be prudently considered in combination therapy.
CRediT authorship contribution statement Jiahong Tan: Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing -original draft, Visualization. Yuan Yuan: Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing -original draft, Visualization. Cheng Xu: Formal analysis, Visualization. Chunyan Song: Formal analysis, Visualization. Dan Liu: Formal analysis, Visualization, Funding acquisition. Ding Ma: Conceptualization, Supervision. Qinglei Gao: Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Writing -review & editing, Supervision. Declaration of Competing Interest None. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262.
References
Ahsan, Javed, Bratty, Alhazmi, Najmi, Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: How far have we reached?, Drug Discov. Ther
Alhazzani, Møller, Arabi, Loeb, Gong et al., Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Med
Almazrou, Almalki, Alanazi, Alqahtani, Alghamd, Comparing the impact of Hydroxychloroquine based regimens and standard treatment on COVID-19 patient outcomes: a retrospective cohort study, J. Saudi Pharm. Soc
Amanat, Krammer, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: status report, Immunity
Annie, Sirbu, Frazier, Broce, Lucas, Hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: real world experience assessing mortality, Pharmacotherapy
Bhimraj, Morgan, Shumaker, Lavergne, Baden et al., Infectious diseases society of america guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19, Clin. Infect. Dis
Blaising, Polyak, Pécheur, Arbidol as a broad-spectrum antiviral: an update, Antiviral Res
Cao, Wang, Wen, Liu, Wang et al., A trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19, N. Engl. J. Med
Carafoli, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the prophylaxis and therapy of COVID-19 infection, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun
Cheng, Li, Cui, Chen, Shan et al., Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid treatment in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Front. Pharmacol
Chowdhury, Rathod, Gernsheimer, A rapid systematic review of clinical trials utilizing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19, Acad. Emerg. Med
Corbett, Lim, Kashuba, Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir), Ann. Pharmacother
Deng, Li, Zeng, Liu, Li et al., Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study, J. Infect
Eslami, Jalili, The role of environmental factors to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), AMB Express
Fihn, Perencevich, Bradley, Caution needed on the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for coronavirus disease, JAMA Netw Open
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hoang, Meddeb et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
Guy, Dipaola, Romanelli, Dutch, Rapid repurposing of drugs for COVID-19, Science
Hongchao Pan, Karim, Abdool, Alejandria, Henao-Restrepo et al., Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19-interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results, medRixv
Hou, Wang, Zhang, Luo, Mao et al., Detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in patients with coronavirus disease, Clin. Transl. Immunol
Hu, Lu, Wan, Wen, The pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic activities of hydroxychloroquine in rheumatic and related diseases, Curr. Med. Chem
Kavanagh, Healy, Dayton, Robinson, O'reilly et al., Inhaled hydroxychloroquine to improve efficacy and reduce harm in the treatment of COVID-19, N. Engl. J. Med
Li, Lin, Weiyin, Cai, Weiping et al., An exploratory randomized controlled study on the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol treating adult patients hospitalized with mild/moderate COVID-19, ELACOI)
Li, Xie, Lin, Cai, Wen et al., Efficacy and safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir or arbidol in adult patients with Mild/Moderate COVID-19: an exploratory randomized controlled trial, Med
Liu, Li, Yu, Wang, Feng et al., Alteration of serum markers in COVID-19 and implications on mortality, Clin. Transl. Med
Lu, Stratton, Tang, Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle, J. Med. Virol
Lv, Luo, Estill, Liu, Ren et al., Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a scoping review, Euro Surveill
Mcclellan, Perry, Oseltamivir: a review of its use in influenza, Drugs
Mckee, Sternberg, Stange, Laufer, Naujokat, Candidate drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, Pharmacol. Res
Prodromos, Rumschlag, Hydroxychloroquine is effective, and consistently so used early, for Covid-19: a systematic review, New Microbes New Infect
Pécheur, Borisevich, Halfmann, Morrey, Smee et al., The synthetic antiviral drug arbidol inhibits globally prevalent pathogenic viruses, J. Virol
Roviello, Roviello, Lower COVID-19 mortality in Italian forested areas suggests immunoprotection by Mediterranean plants, Environ. Chem. Lett
Russell, Millar, Baillie, Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury, Lancet
Samaddar, Grover, Nag, Pathophysiology and potential therapeutic candidates for COVID-19: a poorly understood arena, Front. Pharmacol
Sanders, Monogue, Jodlowski, Cutrell, Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease
Savarino, Di Trani, Donatelli, Cauda, Cassone, New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine, Lancet Infect. Dis
Singh, Parida, Lingaraju, Kesavan, Kumar et al., Drug repurposing approach to fight COVID-19, Pharmacol. Rep
Tan, None
Tang, Han, Mingfeng, Wang, Zhengyan et al., Hydroxychloroquine in patients mainly with mild to moderate COVID-19: an open-label, randomized. controlled trial, medRixv
Tu, Chien, Yarmishyn, Lin, Luo et al., A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials, Int. J. Mol. Sci
Valle, Martin, Touret, Shannon, Canard et al., Drugs against SARS-CoV-2: What do we know about their mode of action?, Rev. Med. Virol
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Yang, Liu et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Jama
Wang, Yang, Li, Wen, Zhang, Clinical features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China, Clin. Infect. Dis
Who, COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update
Wu, Chen, Cai, Xia, Zhou et al., Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA Intern. Med
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease
Wu, Wang, Kuo, Shannar, Peter et al., An update on current therapeutic drugs treating COVID-19, Curr. Pharmacol. Rep
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin. Infect. Dis
Zhaowei Chen, Zhang, Zongwei, Jiang, Shan et al., Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial, medRixv
Zhu, Li, Guan, Hou, Wang et al., Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial, Lancet
Zhu, Zhang, Wang, Li, Yang et al., A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, N. Engl. J. Med
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 3]], 'date-time': '2024-04-03T11:20:37Z', 'timestamp': 1712143237118}, 'reference-count': 51, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2021-03-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1614556800000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}], 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100001809', 'name': 'National Natural Science Foundation of China', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 16]], 'date-time': '2020-12-16T08:26:11Z', 'timestamp': 1608107171000}, 'page': '198262', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 11, 'title': 'A retrospective comparison of drugs against COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'volume': '294', 'author': [ {'given': 'Jiahong', 'family': 'Tan', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Yuan', 'family': 'Yuan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Cheng', 'family': 'Xu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Chunyan', 'family': 'Song', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Dan', 'family': 'Liu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ding', 'family': 'Ma', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Qinglei', 'family': 'Gao', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '67', 'DOI': '10.5582/ddt.2020.03008', 'article-title': 'Treatment of SARS-CoV-2: How far have we reached?', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Ahsan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Drug Discov. Ther.'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '854', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5', 'article-title': 'Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ' 'ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'Alhazzani', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Intensive Care Med.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsps.2020.09.019', 'article-title': 'Comparing the impact of Hydroxychloroquine based regimens and standard ' 'treatment on COVID-19 patient outcomes: a retrospective cohort study', 'author': 'Almazrou', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J. Saudi Pharm. Soc.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '583', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.immuni.2020.03.007', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: status report', 'volume': '52', 'author': 'Amanat', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Immunity'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0025', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1002/phar.2467', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized COVID‐19 patients: real world ' 'experience assessing mortality', 'author': 'Annie', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacotherapy'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0030', 'article-title': 'Infectious diseases society of america guidelines on the treatment and ' 'management of patients with COVID-19', 'author': 'Bhimraj', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Infect. Dis.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0035', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '84', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.04.006', 'article-title': 'Arbidol as a broad-spectrum antiviral: an update', 'volume': '107', 'author': 'Blaising', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Res.'}, { 'issue': '19', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0040', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1787', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001282', 'article-title': 'A trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe ' 'Covid-19', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'Cao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0045', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.09.128', 'article-title': 'Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the prophylaxis and therapy of ' 'COVID-19 infection', 'author': 'Carafoli', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.3389/fphar.2020.571156', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid treatment in patients with ' 'COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'Cheng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Front. Pharmacol.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0055', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '493', 'DOI': '10.1111/acem.14005', 'article-title': 'A rapid systematic review of clinical trials utilizing chloroquine and ' 'hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'Chowdhury', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Acad. Emerg. Med.'}, { 'issue': '7–8', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0060', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1193', 'DOI': '10.1345/aph.1A363', 'article-title': 'Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir)', 'volume': '36', 'author': 'Corbett', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'Ann. Pharmacother.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0065', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e1', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.002', 'article-title': 'Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus ' 'Disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study', 'volume': '81', 'author': 'Deng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J. Infect.'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0070', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '92', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13568-020-01028-0', 'article-title': 'The role of environmental factors to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 ' '(COVID-19)', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Eslami', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'AMB Express'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0075', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.9035', 'article-title': 'Caution needed on the use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for ' 'coronavirus disease 2019', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Fihn', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0080', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results ' 'of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial', 'volume': '56', 'author': 'Gautret', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents'}, { 'issue': '6493', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0085', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '829', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.abb9332', 'article-title': 'Rapid repurposing of drugs for COVID-19', 'volume': '368', 'author': 'Guy', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Science'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0090', 'first-page': '15', 'article-title': 'Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19–interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial ' 'results', 'author': 'Hongchao Pan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRixv'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0095', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1002/cti2.1136', 'article-title': 'Detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in patients with coronavirus ' 'disease 2019', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Hou', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Transl. Immunol.'}, { 'issue': '20', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0100', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2241', 'DOI': '10.2174/0929867324666170316115938', 'article-title': 'The pharmacological mechanisms and therapeutic activities of ' 'hydroxychloroquine in rheumatic and related diseases', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Hu', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Curr. Med. Chem.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0105', 'first-page': '143', 'article-title': 'Inhaled hydroxychloroquine to improve efficacy and reduce harm in the ' 'treatment of COVID-19', 'author': 'Kavanagh', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Med. Hypotheses'}, { 'issue': '13', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0110', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1199', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001316', 'article-title': 'Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel ' 'coronavirus-infected pneumonia', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0115', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir or arbidol in adult patients ' 'with Mild/Moderate COVID-19: an exploratory randomized controlled trial', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Med.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0120', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e119', 'DOI': '10.1002/ctm2.119', 'article-title': 'Alteration of serum markers in COVID-19 and implications on mortality', 'author': 'Liu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Transl. Med.'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0125', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '401', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.25678', 'article-title': 'Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery ' 'and the miracle', 'volume': '92', 'author': 'Lu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J. Med. Virol.'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0130', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.15.2000125', 'article-title': 'Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a scoping review', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'Lv', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Euro Surveill.'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0135', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '263', 'DOI': '10.2165/00003495-200161020-00011', 'article-title': 'Oseltamivir: a review of its use in influenza', 'volume': '61', 'author': 'McClellan', 'year': '2001', 'journal-title': 'Drugs'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0140', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104859', 'article-title': 'Candidate drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19', 'volume': '157', 'author': 'McKee', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol. Res.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0145', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3086', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.02077-15', 'article-title': 'The synthetic antiviral drug arbidol inhibits globally prevalent ' 'pathogenic viruses', 'volume': '90', 'author': 'Pécheur', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'J. Virol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0150', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100776', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine is effective, and consistently so used early, for ' 'Covid-19: a systematic review', 'author': 'Prodromos', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'New Microbes New Infect.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0155', 'first-page': '1', 'article-title': 'Lower COVID-19 mortality in Italian forested areas suggests ' 'immunoprotection by Mediterranean plants', 'author': 'Roviello', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Environ. Chem. Lett.'}, { 'issue': '10223', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0160', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '473', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30317-2', 'article-title': 'Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for ' '2019-nCoV lung injury', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'Russell', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet (London, England)'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0165', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.3389/fphar.2020.585888', 'article-title': 'Pathophysiology and potential therapeutic candidates for COVID-19: a ' 'poorly understood arena', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'Samaddar', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Front. Pharmacol.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0170', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.6019', 'article-title': 'Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)', 'author': 'Sanders', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Jama'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0175', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '67', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70361-9', 'article-title': 'New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Savarino', 'year': '2006', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect. Dis.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0180', 'first-page': '1', 'article-title': 'Drug repurposing approach to fight COVID-19', 'author': 'Singh', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol. Rep.'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0185', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms21072657', 'article-title': 'A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'Tu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Int. J. Mol. Sci.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0190', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1002/rmv.2143', 'article-title': 'Drugs against SARS‐CoV‐2: What do we know about their mode of action?', 'author': 'Valle', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Rev. Med. Virol.'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0195', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1061', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.1585', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China', 'volume': '323', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Jama'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0200', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '269', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged ' 'novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell Res.'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0205', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '769', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa272', 'article-title': 'Clinical features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, ' 'China', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Infect. Dis.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0210', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in patients mainly with mild to moderate COVID-19: ' 'an open-label, randomized', 'author': 'Wei Tang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'controlled trial. medRixv'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0215', 'series-title': 'COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update', 'author': 'WHO', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0220', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.2648', 'article-title': 'Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases ' 'from the chinese center for disease control and prevention', 'author': 'Wu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Jama'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0225', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994', 'article-title': 'Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and ' 'Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, ' 'China', 'volume': '180', 'author': 'Wu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern. Med.'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0230', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '56', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40495-020-00216-7', 'article-title': 'An update on current therapeutic drugs treating COVID-19', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Wu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Curr. Pharmacol. Rep.'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0235', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '732', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Yao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Infect. Dis.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0240', 'article-title': 'An exploratory randomized controlled study on the efficacy and safety ' 'of lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol treating adult patients hospitalized ' 'with mild/moderate COVID-19 (ELACOI)', 'author': 'Yueping Li', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRixv'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0245', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a ' 'randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Zhaowei Chen', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'medRixv'}, { 'issue': '10240', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0250', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1845', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3', 'article-title': 'Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus ' 'type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, ' 'non-randomised, first-in-human trial', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'Zhu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet (London, England)'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262_bib0255', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '727', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001017', 'article-title': 'A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'Zhu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.'}], 'container-title': 'Virus Research', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0168170220311692?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0168170220311692?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-10-15T11:08:31Z', 'timestamp': 1697368111000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168170220311692'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3]]}, 'references-count': 51, 'alternative-id': ['S0168170220311692'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0168-1702'], 'subject': ['Cancer Research', 'Infectious Diseases', 'Virology'], 'container-title-short': 'Virus Research', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 3]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'A retrospective comparison of drugs against COVID-19', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, {'value': 'Virus Research', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198262', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}], 'article-number': '198262'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit