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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -6% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Soto et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,418 patients in Peru (April - August 2020) No significant difference in mortality Soto et al., PLOS ONE, March 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Mortality and associated risk factors in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in a Peruvian reference hospital

Soto et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0264789
Mar 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 1,418 very late stage (46% mortality) patients in Peru, showing no significant difference with HCQ. There is strong confounding by indication, for example 48% of patients with baseline SpO2 <70% were treated compared with 22% for SpO2 >95%. There may also be significant confounding by time with SOC changing substantially over the first few months of the pandemic.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely; substantial confounding by time possible due to significant changes in SOC and treatment propensity near the start of the pandemic.
Study covers HCQ and ivermectin.
risk of death, 6.0% higher, HR 1.06, p = 0.46, treatment 292 of 590 (49.5%), control 362 of 828 (43.7%), Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Soto et al., 2 Mar 2022, retrospective, Peru, peer-reviewed, median age 58.0, 10 authors, study period April 2020 - August 2020, dosage not specified.
This PaperHCQAll
Mortality and associated risk factors in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in a Peruvian reference hospital
Alonso Soto, Dante M Quiñones-Laveriano, Johan Azañero, Rafael Chumpitaz, José Claros, Lucia Salazar, Oscar Rosales, Liz Nuñez, David Roca, Andres Alcantara
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0264789
Objectives To determine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 from a Peruvian national hospital. Methods Retrospective cohort study of medical records of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at Hospital Nacional Hipo ´lito Unanue (HNHU) during the months of April to August 2020. The dependent variable was in-hospital mortality. Independent variables included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, physical examination findings, oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) at admission, treatment received during hospitalization and laboratory results at admission. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the crude and adjusted hazard ratios for associated factors. Results We included 1418 patients. Median age was 58 years (IQR 47-68 years) and 944 (66.6%) were male. The median length of hospitalization was 7 (4-13) days, and the mortality rate was 46%. The most frequent comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. In the adjusted analysis, mortality was associated with age (HR 1.02; 95%CI 1.02-1.03), history of surgery (HR 1.89;, lower oxygen saturation at admission (HR 4.08; CI95% 2.72-8.05 for SaO 2 <70% compared to SaO 2 >94%), the presence of poor general condition (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.29-2.53), altered state of consciousness (HR 1.58;) and leukocyte levels (HR 1.01; 95%CI 1.00-1. 02). Treatment with ivermectin (HR 1.44; 95%CI 1.18-1.76) and azithromycin (HR 1.25; 95%CI 1.03-1.52) were associated with higher mortality. Treatment with corticosteroids at low to moderate doses was associated with lower mortality (HR 0.56 95%CI 0. 37-0. 86) in comparison to no steroid use.
Supporting information S1 Data. (DTA) Author Contributions Conceptualization: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano, Johan Azañero, Rafael Chumpitaz, Jose ´Claros, Lucia Salazar, Andres Alcantara. Data curation: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano, Rafael Chumpitaz, Jose ´Claros, Lucia Salazar, Oscar Rosales, Liz Nuñez, David Roca, Andres Alcantara. Formal analysis: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano, Johan Azañero. Investigation: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano, Johan Azañero, Rafael Chumpitaz, Jose ´Claros, Lucia Salazar, Oscar Rosales, Liz Nuñez, David Roca, Andres Alcantara. Methodology: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano. Software: Alonso Soto. Supervision: Alonso Soto. Validation: Alonso Soto. Visualization: Alonso Soto. Writing -original draft: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano. Writing -review & editing: Alonso Soto, Dante M. Quiñones-Laveriano, Johan Azañero, Rafael Chumpitaz, Jose ´Claros, Lucia Salazar, Oscar Rosales, Liz Nuñez, David Roca, Andres Alcantara.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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