Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -18% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Solh et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 643 patients in the USA Higher mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.17) Solh et al., medRxiv, October 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome: data from a national repository

Solh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20214130
Oct 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective database analysis of 7,816 Veterans Affairs hospitalized patients analyzing progression to ARDS and 30-day mortality from ARDS. Confounding by indication is likely. Chronological bias is likely, with HCQ more likely to be used earlier on, before significant improvements in overall treatment. No results are provided for HCQ for progression to ARDS.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: very late stage, >50% on oxygen/ventilation at baseline; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 18.0% higher, HR 1.18, p = 0.17, treatment 131 of 265 (49.4%), control 134 of 378 (35.4%), adjusted per study.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Solh et al., 20 Oct 2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, preprint, 5 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
MD, MPH Ali A El-Solh, MD Umberto G Meduri, MS Yolanda Lawson, PharmD Michael Carter, PharmD Kari A Mergenhagen
Background: Mortality attributable to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) 2 infection occurs mainly through the development of viral pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Research Question: The objective of the study is to delineate the clinical profile, predictors of disease progression, and 30-day mortality from ARDS using the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse. Study Design and Methods: Analysis of a historical cohort of 7,816 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection between January 1, 2020, and August 1, 2020. Main outcomes were progression to ARDS and 30-day mortality from ARDS, respectively. Results: The cohort was comprised predominantly of men (94.5%) with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range [IQR] 60-74 years). 2,184 (28%) were admitted to the intensive care unit and 643 (29.4%) were diagnosed with ARDS. The median Charlson Index was 3 (IQR 1-5). Independent predictors of progression to ARDS were body mass index (BMI)≥ 40 kg/m 2 , diabetes, lymphocyte counts<700x109/L, LDH>450 U/L, ferritin >862 ng/ml, C-reactive protein >11 mg/dL, and Ddimer >1.5 ug/ml. In contrast, the use of an anticoagulant lowered the risk of developing ARDS (OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.49-0.89]. Crude 30-day mortality rate from ARDS was 41% (95% CI 38%-45%). Risk of death from ARDS was significantly higher in those who developed acute renal failure and septic shock. Use of an anticoagulant was associated with two-fold reduction in mortality. Survival benefit was observed in patients who received corticosteroids and/or remdesivir but there was no advantage of combination therapy over either agent alone. Conclusions: Among those hospitalized for COVID-19, nearly one in ten progressed to ARDS. Septic shock, and acute renal failure are the leading causes of death in these patients. Treatment with either remdesivir and corticosteroids reduced the risk of mortality from ARDS. All hospitalized patients with COVID-19 should be placed at a minimum on prophylactic doses of anticoagulation. .
Anderson, Geleris, Anderson, Body Mass Index and Risk for Intubation or Death in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Ann Intern Med
Angus, Derde, Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID
Azoulay, Fartoukh, Darmon, Increased mortality in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted within seven days of disease onset, Intensive Care Med
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 -Preliminary Report, N Engl J Med
Charlson, Pompei, Ales, Mackenzie, A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation, J Chronic Dis
Chen, Liang, Jiang, Risk Factors of Fatal Outcome in Hospitalized Subjects With Coronavirus Disease 2019 From a Nationwide Analysis in China, Chest
Chen, Wu, Chen, Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study, BMJ. Mar
Dickerson, The obesity paradox in the ICU: real or not?, Crit Care
Feld, Tremblay, Thibaud, Kessler, Naymagon, Ferritin levels in patients with COVID-19: A poor predictor of mortality and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Int J Lab Hematol
Fezeu, Julia, Henegar, Obesity is associated with higher risk of intensive care unit admission and death in influenza A (H1N1) patients: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Obes Rev
Fihn, Francis, Clancy, Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration, Health Aff (Millwood)
Fragkou, Belhadi, Peiffer-Smadja, Review of trials currently testing treatment and prevention of COVID-19, Clin Microbiol Infect
Garcia, Fumeaux, Guerci, Prognostic factors associated with mortality risk and disease progression in 639 critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Europe: Initial report of the international RISC-19-ICU prospective observational cohort, EClinicalMedicine
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy, JAMA
Group, Horby, Lim, Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 -Preliminary Report, N Engl J Med
Huang, Wang, Li, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Hussman, Cellular and Molecular Pathways of COVID-19 and Potential Points of Therapeutic Intervention, Front Pharmacol
Jang, Hur, Choi, Hong, Lee et al., Prognostic Factors for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Daegu, Korea, J Korean Med Sci
Jose, Manuel, COVID-19 cytokine storm: the interplay between inflammation and coagulation, Lancet Respir Med. Jun
Kruglikov, Scherer, The Role of Adipocytes and Adipocyte-Like Cells in the Severity of COVID-19 Infections, Obesity (Silver Spring)
Lighter, Phillips, Hochman, Obesity in Patients Younger Than 60 Years Is a Risk Factor for COVID-19 Hospital Admission, Clin Infect Dis
Louie, Jean, Acosta, Samuel, Matyas et al., A review of adult mortality due to 2009 pandemic (H1N1) influenza A in California, PLoS One
Mehta, Mcauley, Brown, COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression, Lancet. Mar
Moores, Tritschler, Brosnahan, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of VTE in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report, Chest
Nadkarni, Bagiella, Anticoagulation, Mortality, Bleeding and Pathology Among Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Single Health System Study, J Am Coll Cardiol
Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision
Pan, Cheng, Cao, A Predicting Nomogram for Mortality in Patients With COVID-19, Front Public Health
Petrilli, Jones, Yang, Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City: prospective cohort study, BMJ
Poggiali, Zaino, Immovilli, Lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein as predictors of respiratory failure in CoVID-19 patients, Clin Chim Acta
Rello, Storti, Belliato, Serrano, Clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2: implications for clinicians and researchers, Eur Respir J
Simonnet, Chetboun, Poissy, High Prevalence of Obesity in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, Obesity
Sinha, Matthay, Calfee, Is a "Cytokine Storm" Relevant to COVID-19?, JAMA Intern Med
Sohn, Arnold, Maynard, Hynes, Accuracy and completeness of mortality data in the Department of Veterans Affairs, Popul Health Metr
Tang, Li, Wang, Sun, Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia, J Thromb Haemost
Tomazini, Maia, Cavalcanti, Effect of Dexamethasone on Days Alive and Ventilator-Free in Patients With Moderate or Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and COVID-19: The CoDEX Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA
Wang, Hu, Hu, Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA. Mar
Wang, Zuo, Liu, Clinical and laboratory predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19: a cohort study in Wuhan, China, Clin Infect Dis
Wu, Chen, Cai, Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA Intern Med
Zhang, Tan, Ling, Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19, Nature. Jul
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop