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Prevalence of Diabetes, Management and Outcomes among Covid-19 Adult Patients Admitted in a Specialized Tertiary Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Sheshah et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108538
Nov 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 300 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing HCQ adjusted odds ratio aOR 0.12, p < 0.001.
risk of death, 80.0% lower, RR 0.20, p < 0.001, treatment 267, control 33, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sheshah et al., 13 Nov 2020, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Prevalence of diabetes, management and outcomes among Covid-19 adult patients admitted in a specialized tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Eman Sheshah, Shaun Sabico, Rashed M Albakr, Anmar A Sultan, Khalaf S Alghamdi, Khaled Al Madani, Hadil A Alotair, Nasser M Al-Daghri
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108538
This retrospective study aimed to characterize comorbidities and associated with mortality among hospitalized adults with Covid-19 managed as per the Saudi Ministry of Health protocol in a specialized tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical records of 300 adult patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection and admitted in King Salman Hospital (KSH) from May 1 to July 31, 2020 were included. Medical history, management and outcomes were noted. Males significantly outnumber females (259 versus 41). South Asians comprise 41% of all admitted patients. Mortality rate was 10% and highest among Saudi males (28.9%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was the most common comorbidity (45.7%). Almost all patients (99%) had pneumonia. Patients > 50 years were three times more likely to die (confidence interval, CI 1.3-6.9; p = 0.01) from Covid-19. Congestive heart failure (odds ratio OR 19.4, CI-1.5-260.0; p = 0.02) and acute kidney injury (OR 11.7,; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher mortality. Dexamethasone use significantly improved the final outcome based on net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (p < 0.05). In this single-center study, T2DM was very common among hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Patients > 50 years, those with congestive heart failure and acute kidney injury are at higher risk for worse Covid-19 outcome.
Authors' Contributions ES and SS designed the study. RMA, AAS, KSA, KA and HAA worked in the methodology. SS and NMA did the formal analysis. ES, RMA, AAS, KSA, KA and HAA helped in the data curation. SS wrote the original and revised draft. ES, RMA, AAS, KSA, KA, HAA and NMA handled manuscript review ES and NMA did the study supervision. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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