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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 85% Improvement Relative Risk Moderate/severe case 18% HCQ for COVID-19  Salesi et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 77 patients in Iran Lower severe cases with HCQ (p=0.0032) Salesi et al., Immunopathologia Persa, Dec 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical signs, symptoms, and severity of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases during the COVID-19 epidemic

Salesi et al., Immunopathologia Persa, doi:10.34172/ipp.2023.40568
Dec 2023  
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HCQ for COVID-19
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*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective study of 77 outpatients with rheumatic diseases diagnosed with COVID-19, showing lower risk of severe COVID-19 with HCQ use in unadjusted results.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of severe case, 85.0% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.003, treatment 2 of 44 (4.5%), control 10 of 33 (30.3%), NNT 3.9.
risk of moderate/severe case, 18.2% lower, RR 0.82, p = 0.35, treatment 24 of 44 (54.5%), control 22 of 33 (66.7%), NNT 8.2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Salesi et al., 18 Dec 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
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Clinical signs, symptoms, and severity of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases during the COVID-19 epidemic
Mansour Salesi, Maryam Sedarat
Introduction: Recent studies have shown that patients with rheumatic diseases are more likely to experience severe cases of COVID-19. Additionally, certain anti-inflammatory medications have been linked to a reduction in the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the frequency of clinical signs, symptoms, and severity of COVID-19 in outpatients with rheumatic diseases. Patients and Methods: A total of 77 patients with rheumatic disorders who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and referred to Isfahan rheumatology clinics in 2020 were selected for this study. The study investigated their clinical signs, symptoms, severity of COVID-19, type of rheumatic disease, and the medications they were using. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and the type of rheumatic disease. Results: Among the 77 patients, 79.2% had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 9.1% had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 9.1% had Sjogren's syndrome, and 2.6% had other rheumatic disorders. The severity of COVID-19 was classified as mild in 40.3% of cases, moderate in 44.2%, and severe in 15.6%. There was no statistically significant relationship between the type of rheumatic disease and the severity of COVID-19 (P = 0.093). Conclusion: The findings suggest that patients with rheumatic diseases are more likely to experience severe cases of COVID-19. Conversely, the combination of hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, and prednisolone has been associated with a lower prevalence of severe cases of COVID-19. In contrast, the administration of methotrexate and prednisolone has been linked to a higher prevalence of severe cases of COVID-19.
Authors' contribution Conflicts of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Ethical issues The research followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. The Ethics Committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences approved this study. The institutional ethical committee at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences approved all study protocols (Ethical code#IR.MUI.MED.REC.1399.883). Accordingly, written informed consent was taken from all participants before any intervention. this study was extracted from a thesis of internal medicine specialty
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