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Profiles of Independent-Comorbidity Groups in Senior COVID-19 Patients Reveal Low Fatality Associated with Standard Care and Low-Dose Hydroxychloroquine over Antivirals

Said et al., Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, doi:10.2147/JMDH.S403700
May 2023  
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Mortality 78% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Said et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 840 patients in Saudi Arabia Lower mortality with HCQ (p<0.000001) Said et al., J. Multidisciplinary Heal.., May 2023 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
Retrospective 750 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment in unadjusted results. Authors note that the poor results in some other trials may be related to increased dosages and later treatment.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of death, 77.5% lower, RR 0.22, p < 0.001, treatment 14 of 435 (3.2%), control 58 of 405 (14.3%), NNT 9.0.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Said et al., 1 May 2023, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 12 authors. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Monotherapy versus polytherapy of enoxaparin and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19: A randomized controlled clinical trial
Amira S A Said, Doaa Raghda R S Hussein, Mahmoud Khalil, MD Alzhraa M Fahmy, PhD. Phd of Biotechnology, Ahmed H A Hassanein, Lamiaa N Abdelaty, Mahmoud Doaa, MD Khalil
Objectives: The current study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of Enoxaparin and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) used as monothrapy or polytherapy versus standard care alone in Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients. Methods: The current study included two hundred patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection. Patients admitted to hospital were randomly allocated into four groups: group I: received standard COVID-19 therapy, group II: received Enoxaparin 40mg/day subcutaneously (SC) plus standard therapy, group III: received 400 mg/day HCQ plus standard therapy & group IV: received a combination of 400 mg/day HCQ and Enoxaparin plus standard COVID-19 therapy. The disease progression was evaluated by duration to a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), length of hospital or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and mortality rate. The safety of treatments was evaluated by measuring adverse effects. Results: The length of hospital stay, ICU admission and mortality were significantly decreased in Enoxaparin plus standard COVID-19 therapy group versus other groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Enoxaparin was safe, effective, and well tolerated and has a role in decreasing the progression of the disease and its complications while HCQ did not discover any evidence of extra therapeutic benefits.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Conceptualization: Amira S.A. Said, Lamiaa N Abdelaty, Alzhraa M. Fahmy, Raghda R.S. Hussein, Ahmed H.A. Hassanein. Data curation: Lamiaa N Abdelaty, Raghda R.S. Hussein., Formal Analysis: Doaa Mahmoud Khalil, Investigation: All authors,Project Administration: All authors, Methodology: Amira S.A. Said, Lamiaa N Abdelaty, Alzhraa M. Fahmy, Raghda R.S. Hussein, Ahmed H.A. Hassanein., Software: Doaa Mahmoud Khalil. Validation: Doaa Mahmoud Khalil., Resources: All Authors. Writing-original draft preparation: All Authors. Writing-review and editing: All Authors. Visualization: All Authors. Project administration: All Authors. Funding acquisition: non, authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. FUNDING This research received no external funding. INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD STATEMENT The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and in accordance with the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee with serial number: REC-H-PhBSU-21013. Also, the study was INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT Written informed consent has been obtained from patients. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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