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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 40% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Rubio-Sánchez et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 197 patients in Spain (March - June 2020) Lower severe cases with HCQ (p=0.021) Rubio-Sánchez et al., Advances in Labo.., Mar 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Prognostic factors for the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Rubio-Sánchez et al., Advances in Laboratory Medicine / Avances en Medicina de Laboratorio, doi:10.1515/almed-2021-0017
Mar 2021  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 197 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing lower progression to pneumonia with HCQ in unadjusted results.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of severe case, 40.0% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.02, treatment 51 of 161 (31.7%), control 19 of 36 (52.8%), NNT 4.7.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rubio-Sánchez et al., 3 Mar 2021, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, study period 14 March, 2020 - 5 June, 2020. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Prognostic factors for the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Ricardo Rubio-Sánchez, Esperanza Lepe-Balsalobre, María Del Mar Viloria-Peñas
Advances in Laboratory Medicine / Avances en Medicina de Laboratorio, doi:10.1515/almed-2021-0017
Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. This disease is associated with leukocytosis with lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and elevated levels of D-dimer, and C-reactive protein, ferritin, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and analytical characteristics of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and to identify prognostic factors of disease progression. Methods: Patients were categorized into two groups based on COVID-19 severity. Study variables included demographic data, medical history, length of hospital stay, course of pneumonia, drug therapy, and analytical parameters. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for disease severity. Results: The study population included 197 patients, of whom 127 had mild disease and 70 had severe COVID-19. Statistically significant differences were observed in most analytical parameters. The parameters included in the multivariate analysis were advanced age and elevated levels of leukocytes, CRP, GGT, and PCT at admission as prognostic factors for disease severity. Conclusions: The prognostic factors for the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified in this study (age, leukocytes, CRP, GGT, and PCT) will help predict the course of the disease at an early stage.
Azkur, Akdis, Azkur, Sokolowska, Van De Veen et al., Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and mechanisms of immunopathological changes in COVID-19, Allergy
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Note, The original article can be found here, doi:10.1515/almed-2020-0069
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Shi, Yu, Zhao, Wang, Zhao et al., Host susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and establishment of a host risk score: findings of 487 cases outside Wuhan, Crit Care
Sun, Ning, Tao, Yu, Deng et al., Risk factors for mortality in 244 older adults with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective study, J Am Geriatr Soc
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Late treatment
is less effective
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