Hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Revollo et al.
, Hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare workers
, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa477
Retrospective PrEP analysis with 69 healthcare workers on PrEP HCQ, and 418 control.
Authors report PCR and IgG results, with no baseline results for either. Authors note they "identified 69 HCWs receiving HCQ" while providing no information as to why or when they started HCQ.
No conclusions can be drawn from this study because many workers may have been positive before starting HCQ. Only 14% of workers chose to use HCQ and they may have been motivated to do so because they had an infection.
Authors perform several different adjustments, finding very different results. No information on death, hospitalization, symptoms, or severity is provided. Details on timing of serology and baseline serology status is not provided. Potential bias due to self-selection for risk.
25% of infections were detected before 7 days, indicating that they actually happened earlier (PCR false positive is very high initially). It is likely that many infections were before HCQ could reach therapeutic levels.
Although the 23% fewer cases is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 30% fewer cases [22‑38%]
from meta analysis of the 73 cases results to date
risk of case, 23.0% lower, RR 0.77, p = 0.52, treatment 16 of 69 (23.2%), control 65 of 418 (15.6%), adjusted per study, PSM, risk of PCR+.
risk of case, 43.0% higher, RR 1.43, p = 0.42, treatment 17 of 60 (28.3%), control 62 of 404 (15.3%), adjusted per study, PSM, risk of IgG+.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Revollo et al., 21 Nov 2020, retrospective, propensity score matching, Spain, peer-reviewed, 16 authors.
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Advance Access publication 21 November 2020
prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare
Boris Revollo1, Cristian Tebe2, Judith Pen
Ignacio Blanco , Nuria Perez-Alvarez , Ruth Lopez5,
Laura Rodriguez6, Josep Ferrer7, Pilar Ricart8,
Enrique Moret9, Cristina Tural7, Anna Carreres10,
Joan Matllo5, Sebastia
and Josep M. Llibre1*
Division of Infectious Diseases and FLS Foundation for Fighting
AIDS, Infectious Diseases and Promoting Health and Science,
University Hospital Germans Trias, Badalona, Spain; 2Biostatistics
Unit, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL)/University
of Barcelona, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain;
de la Salut,
Metropolitana Nord Laboratory, Institut Catala
Badalona, Spain; 4Statistics and Operations Research
Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-Barcelona
Tech, Barcelona, Spain; 5Occupational Risk Prevention Unit,
University Hospital Germans Trias, Badalona, Spain; 6Pulmonary
Medicine, University Hospital Germans Trias, Badalona, Spain;
Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital Germans
Trias, Badalona, Spain; 8Intensive Care Unit Division, University
Hospital Germans Trias, Badalona, Spain; 9Anaesthesiology
Department, University Hospital Germans Trias, Badalona, Spain;
Emergency Department, University Hospital Germans Trias,
Badalona, Spain; 11Clinical Research Support Unit, Clinical
Pharmacology Department, Bellvitge University Hospital/Bellvitge
Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL)/University of Barcelona,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are a high-risk population for SARSCoV-2 infection and account for at least 11% of reported cases.1,2
We performed an observational cross-sectional case-control
study to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure
prophylaxis (PrEP) among hospital HCWs.
All HCWs (of all categories) who worked in the COVID-19 frontline wards of University Hospital Germans Trias (Badalona, Spain)
were invited to participate. There was no protocol in the institution
recommending hydroxychloroquine PrEP. The dose used by HCWs
was 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily for
an additional 4 days, with a maintenance dosing of 200 mg weekly
HCWs were classified as having high-risk occupational exposure
if they worked in hospital-based COVID-19 wards, moderate-risk
occupational exposure if they had direct contact with admitted
patients, but not in COVID-19 wards, and low-risk occupational
exposure if they had occasional contact with hospitalized patients.
Reverse real-time PCR was performed for nasopharyngeal
swabs of all HCWs with symptoms or suspicion of COVID-19.
A screening of SARS-CoV-2 serology of all hospital HCWs was
performed when the epidemic reached its end (late May 2020).
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