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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 73% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Rathod et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with HCQ + AZ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 565 patients in India (March - June 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ + AZ (p=0.02) Rathod et al., The J. the Association .., Jun 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Risk Factors associated with COVID-19 Patients in India: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study

Rathod et al., The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, doi:10.5005/japi-11001-0263
Jun 2023  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 565 COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality with HCQ+AZ treatment. Most patients (66%) had mild disease at baseline.
risk of death, 73.0% lower, HR 0.27, p = 0.02, treatment 513, control 52, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rathod et al., 1 Jun 2023, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 28 March, 2020 - 3 June, 2020, average treatment delay 5.0 days, dosage not specified, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with AZ) - results of individual treatments may vary.
This PaperHCQAll
Risk Factors associated with COVID-19 Patients in India: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study
Darshana Rathod, Ketan Kargirwar, Mayur Patel, Vivek Kumar, Kavita Shalia, Pratibha Singhal
Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has caused a worldwide pandemic, resulting in >3.8 million deaths. Our aim is to identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality using survival analysis considering the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to a dedicated tertiary-care hospital in Mumbai, India. Materials and methods: In a retrospective cohort study, 565 patients admitted from 28th March 2020 to 30th June 2020 were enrolled, and a follow-up was conducted till August 2020. To investigate the impact of COVID-19, survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Potential risk factors associated with mortality were analyzed using logistic regression models for multivariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model for estimating hazard ratios (HRs). Results: From the 565 positive COVID-19 cases, 49 patients died (8.7%) and 516 (91.3%) were discharged. Overall, 119 patients (20%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, of which 70 (58%) patients survived. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a significant association of COVID-19 infection with age (≥60; p = 0.008), hypertension (p = 0.03), dialysis (p = 0.0001), lung commodities (p = 0.01), breathlessness (p = 0.0001), severe disease upon high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) analysis (p = 0.0001), ICU admission (p = 0.0001), and low lymphocyte count at admission (p = 0.0001). Additionally, patients receiving tocilizumab (p = 0.0001) and deprived of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (azee) (p = 0.0001) were estimated at a high risk of mortality. Interpretation and conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increased the risk of mortality in patients with increased age, comorbidities, and severe symptoms upon treatment with an immunosuppressant (tocilizumab). However, patients treated with HCQ + azee showed favorable results due to their antiviral effects in vitro.
Ethics Committee approval: Institutional Review Board approved the study with the IEC protocol number HNH/IEC/2021/ OCS/CCM/55. Informed consent: The requirement for written informed consent was waived by the IEC.
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