Risk Factors associated with COVID-19 Patients in India: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study
Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has caused a worldwide pandemic, resulting in >3.8 million deaths. Our aim is to identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality using survival analysis considering the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to a dedicated tertiary-care hospital in Mumbai, India.
Materials and methods: In a retrospective cohort study, 565 patients admitted from 28th March 2020 to 30th June 2020 were enrolled, and a follow-up was conducted till August 2020. To investigate the impact of COVID-19, survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Potential risk factors associated with mortality were analyzed using logistic regression models for multivariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model for estimating hazard ratios (HRs). Results: From the 565 positive COVID-19 cases, 49 patients died (8.7%) and 516 (91.3%) were discharged. Overall, 119 patients (20%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, of which 70 (58%) patients survived. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a significant association of COVID-19 infection with age (≥60; p = 0.008), hypertension (p = 0.03), dialysis (p = 0.0001), lung commodities (p = 0.01), breathlessness (p = 0.0001), severe disease upon high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) analysis (p = 0.0001), ICU admission (p = 0.0001), and low lymphocyte count at admission (p = 0.0001). Additionally, patients receiving tocilizumab (p = 0.0001) and deprived of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (azee) (p = 0.0001) were estimated at a high risk of mortality.
Interpretation and conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increased the risk of mortality in patients with increased age, comorbidities, and severe symptoms upon treatment with an immunosuppressant (tocilizumab). However, patients treated with HCQ + azee showed favorable results due to their antiviral effects in vitro.
Ethics Committee approval: Institutional Review Board approved the study with the IEC protocol number HNH/IEC/2021/ OCS/CCM/55. Informed consent: The requirement for written informed consent was waived by the IEC.
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