Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Hydroxychloroquine  COVID-19 treatment studies for HCQ  C19 studies: HCQ  HCQ   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 67% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission -6% Ramírez-García et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 403 patients in Spain Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.0000062) Ramírez-García et al., Archivos de Medicina Universitaria Favors HCQ Favors control
Hydroxychloroquine and Tocilizumab in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Longitudinal Observational Study
Ramírez-García et al., Archivos de Medicina Universitaria
Ramírez-García et al., Hydroxychloroquine and Tocilizumab in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Longitudinal Observational Study, Archivos de Medicina Universitaria
May 2021   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Retrospective 403 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with treatment, however authors do not adjust for the differences between the groups. Confounding by indication is likely. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 67.0% lower, RR 0.33, p < 0.001, treatment 48 of 350 (13.7%), control 22 of 53 (41.5%), NNT 3.6.
risk of ICU admission, 6.0% higher, RR 1.06, p = 1.00, treatment 35 of 350 (10.0%), control 5 of 53 (9.4%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ramírez-García et al., 31 May 2021, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Abstract: research paper Submission date: 14/03/2021 Revision date: 24/03/2021 Acceptance date: 04/04/2021 Hydroxychloroquine and Tocilizumab in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Longitudinal Observational Study Ramírez-García, Guillermo1; García-Molina, Pablo2; Flor-Cremades, María Consuelo3; Muñoz-Rojas, Beatriz4; Moleón-Moya, Javier5 Master’s Degree in Anthropology and Forensic Genetics, University of Granada (UGR) Master’s Degree in Biotechnology, University of Granada (UGR) 3 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada (UGR) 4 Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada (UGR) 5 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada (UGR) 1 2 Abstract Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and to describe the profile of patients who received these treatments. Method The medical records of 403 patients admitted for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 15, 2020 at the San Cecilio University Hospital (Granada, Spain) were analyzed. The data collected included sex, age, days hospitalized, previous pathologies and/or treatments, possible outcomes and drugs administered at the hospital. Student’s t-test and Pearson’s chi-square tests were used as statistical parameters to estimate the possible associations between the defined variables. Results Patients with a mean age of 66 years (standard deviation = 15.38), were hospitalized for an average of 15 days (standard deviation = 12.89). The ICU admission rate was 9.93 %, and the death rate added up to 17.37 % of the total number of patients. During the first wave of the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine was administered to the majority of hospitalized patients, while tocilizumab was restricted to the more severe cases. Conclusions The results showed two distinct trends in the use of the drugs studied. Tocilizumab was administered to a small number of patients, mainly those with longer length of stay or with complications. Hydroxychloroquine was administered independently of the initial characteristics of patients, especially those who presented comorbidities or took multiple medications. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, hospitalization. Translated by: Asensi-Gómez, Paula6; Carbajo-García, Ana7; Cobano-Jiménez, Juan Luis8; Lenker-Andrade, Elisa9; VázquezDelgado, Iván9; Vivas-del-Torno, Elena6 Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Comillas Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University Jaume I (UJI) 8 Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of Alcalá (UAH) 9 Faculty of Translation and Interpreting, University of Granada (UGR) 6 7
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop