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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case, vs. other csDMARD 41% Improvement Relative Risk Case, vs. methotrexate 21% Case, vs. TNF inhibitor 55% HCQ for COVID-19  Patel et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in the USA Fewer cases with HCQ (p=0.02) Patel et al., Seminars in Arthritis an.., Oct 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Factors Associated with COVID-19 Breakthrough Infection Among Vaccinated Patients with Rheumatic Diseases: A Cohort Study

Patel et al., Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2022.152108
Oct 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 11,468 vaccinated rheumatic disease patients, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with HCQ/CQ (antimalarial) treatment compared with all other treatments, statistically significant for 6 treatments.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: authors only provide multiple results comparing with specific other treatments.
risk of case, 41.2% lower, HR 0.59, p = 0.02, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, HCQ/CQ vs. other csDMARD, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
risk of case, 21.3% lower, HR 0.79, p = 0.34, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, HCQ/CQ vs. methotrexate, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
risk of case, 54.8% lower, HR 0.45, p = 0.003, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, HCQ/CQ vs. TNF inhibitor, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Patel et al., 26 Oct 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, mean age 60.0, 12 authors. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Factors associated with COVID-19 breakthrough infection among vaccinated patients with rheumatic diseases: A cohort study
Naomi J Patel, Xiaosong Wang, Xiaoqing Fu, Yumeko Kawano, Claire Cook, Kathleen M M Vanni, Grace Qian, Emily Banasiak, Emily Kowalski, Yuqing Zhang, Jeffrey A Sparks, Zachary S Wallace
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2022.152108
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