Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 16% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Pasquini et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 51 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.34) Pasquini et al., J. Antimicrobial Chem.., Aug 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Effectiveness of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation in an Italian ICU

Pasquini et al., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa321
Aug 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 51 ICU patients under mechanical ventilation, 33 treated with HCQ, showing unadjusted lower mortality with treatment.
Although the 16% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 25% lower mortality [20‑29%] from meta analysis of the 250 mortality results to date.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers HCQ and remdesivir.
risk of death, 16.4% lower, RR 0.84, p = 0.34, treatment 23 of 33 (69.7%), control 15 of 18 (83.3%), NNT 7.3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Pasquini et al., 23 Aug 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, average treatment delay 10.0 days.
This PaperHCQAll
Effectiveness of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation in an Italian ICU
Zeno Pasquini, Roberto Montalti, Chiara Temperoni, Benedetta Canovari, Mauro Mancini, Michele Tempesta, Daniela Pimpini, Nicoletta Zallocco, Francesco Barchiesi
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa321
Background: Remdesivir is a prodrug with in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its clinical efficacy in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation remains to be evaluated. Methods: This study includes patients under mechanical ventilation with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU of Pesaro hospital between 29 February and 20 March 2020. During this period, remdesivir was provided on a compassionate use basis. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients treated with remdesivir were collected retrospectively and compared with those of patients hospitalized in the same time period. Results: A total of 51 patients were considered, of which 25 were treated with remdesivir. The median (IQR) age was 67 (59-75.5) years, 92% were men and symptom onset was 10 (8-12) days before admission to ICU. At baseline, there was no significant difference in demographic characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory values between patients treated and not treated with remdesivir. Median follow-up was 52 (46-57) days. Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly lower mortality among patients who had been treated with remdesivir (56% versus 92%, P < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index was the only factor that had a significant association with higher mortality (OR 1.184; 95% CI 1.027-1.365; P = 0.020), while the use of remdesivir was associated with better survival (OR 3.506; 95% CI 1.768-6.954; P < 0.001). Conclusions: In this study the mortality rate of patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation is confirmed to be high. The use of remdesivir was associated with a significant beneficial effect on survival.
Transparency declarations None to declare.
Alhazzani, Møller, Arabi, Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Med
Arentz, Yim, Klaff, Characteristics and outcomes of 21 critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Washington State, JAMA
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 -preliminary report, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007764
Bhatraju, Ghassemieh, Nichols, Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region-case series, N Engl J Med
Charlson, Pompei, Ales, A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation, J Chronic Dis
Chen, Feng, Diao, The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly decimates human spleens and lymph nodes, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.27.20045427
Chen, Xin, Xue, Remdesivir for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing COVID-19: an evaluation of the evidence, Travel Med Infect Dis
Ferreira, Bota, Bross, Serial evaluation of the SOFA score to predict outcome in critically ill patients, JAMA
Gordon, Tchesnokov, Feng, The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, J Biol Chem
Gordon, Tchesnokov, Woolner, Remdesivir is a direct-acting antiviral that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with high potency, J Biol Chem
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy, JAMA
Grein, Ohmagari, Shin, Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Holshue, Debolt, Lindquist, First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States, N Engl J Med
Ko, Rolain, Lee, Arguments in favour of remdesivir for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Lazzerini, Putoto, COVID-19 in Italy: momentous decisions and many uncertainties, Lancet Glob Heal
Lo, Jordan, Arvey, GS-5734 and its parent nucleoside analog inhibit Filo-, Pneumo-, and Paramyxoviruses, Sci Rep
Mcgonagle, Sharif, 'regan, The role of cytokines including interleukin-6 in COVID-19 induced pneumonia and macrophage activation syndrome-like disease, Autoimmun Rev
Merad, Martin, Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages, Nat Rev Immunol
Mulangu, Dodd, Davey, A randomized, controlled trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics, N Engl J Med
Pasquini, None
Poston, Patel, Davis, Management of critically ill adults with COVID-19, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4914
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, JAMA
Sheahan, Sims, Graham, Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses, Sci Transl Med
Sheahan, Sims, Leist, Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV, Nat Commun, doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wang, Zhang, Du, Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial, Lancet
Warren, Jordan, Lo, Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys, Nature
Who, Novel coronavirus-China
Wu, Chen, Cai, Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA Intern Med, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994
Xu, Chen, Yuan, Factors associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in patients with COVID-19, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa351
Yang, Yu, Xu, Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study, Lancet Respir Med
Zheng, Fan, Yu, Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study, BMJ
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop